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GOVERNOR 



William Bradford, 



AND HIS SON, 



Major William Bradford. 



BY 



JAMES SHEPARD. 




New Britain, Conn., 

JAMES SHEPARD, 

1900. 






.'CB.'RALD, PPINT. 






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COPYRIGHTS : 

SEE 

AUTHORITIES. 



trO 






TO MY DAUGHTER. 

OELIA ANTOINETTE SHEPARD, 



THE NINTH 



IN DESCENT PROM 



GOV. WILLIAM BRADFORD, 



THIS WORK 



IS 



AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED 



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TIKE 








Mmmm. = ALICE MAMS®!*! 



AUSTO^ILE), 




ft =9, 



William Bradford 



AND 

lice Carpenter 

William Bradford, = Alice Richards. 




John Steele, = Meletfah Bradford. 



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Samuel Shepard,- Bethia Steele. 



Samuel Shepard,— Hannah Bronson. 



Samuel Shepard,= Thankful Mallory. 

i 

Amos Shepaj=?d,= Statira Alcott 



James Shepard,= Celia Adelaide Curtis. 
Cella Antoinette Shepard. 




PREFACE. 



It is an honor to any person to have descended from such a 
worthy ancestor as Governor William Bradford. Without detract- 
ing in any degree the praises due any of the Mayflower Pilgrims, 
I may truly say that after a careful study of Bradford, there was 
no man among them whose ancestry can confer a greater honor. It 
is not necessary for me to speak his praise, that has already been 
well done by many others. But these praises, .and the facts of his 
life are scattered with other matter through many different volumes 
where they can only be found by weary and patient labor. This 
work is published in order to do honor to such a noble sire, and to 
enable others to find in a single book the substance of what has 
been written of him, although I had no intention of publishing the 
same when the material was collected and first put into form. 

The views of the Ancient Chapel and the Bradford house at 
Austerfield are from photographs by the Rev. W. W. Leete of 
Rockford, 111. The other illustrations are from drawings by the 
author's assistant, Mr. A. W. Stipek, and from photographs in 
1898, by the author. 

I hereby express my sincere thanks to the authors and propri- 
etors of the several copyrights, by whose kind favors, in permitting 
me to quote from their works, I am enabled to present this book 
so largely in their words. 

I also wish to acknowledge my indebtedness and extend my 
special thanks for much valuable data and many useful suggestions, 
to my kinsman in the Bradford and Shepard lines, Mr. Rollin H. 



Cooke of Pittsfield, Mass., who is, and long has been, a Bradford 
student, and who is now engaged in writing a history of the de- 
scendants of Governor William Bradford. 

JAMES SHEPARD. 

Lakeside, New Britain, Conn., Jan. 4, 1900. 



V 



AUTHORITIES. 



WORKS QUOTED FROM. 

Drew. Thomas Bradford Drew, The Ancient Estate of Gov. 

William Bradford, 1897. 
Deane. Charles Deane, In Preface to Bradford's History of 

Plymouth, 1856. 
Doyle. John A. Doyle, In Preface to Facsimile History of 

Plymouth Plantation, 1896. 
Baylies. Historical Memoir of New Plymouth. 

Young. Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers, 1846. 

Arber. Story of the Pilgrims. 

Elliott. Charles W. Elliott, New England History, 1857. 

Belknap. Jeremy Belknap's American Biography, 1841. 

Morton. Nathaniel Morton's New England Memorial, 1669. 

Meade. Editor Meade, In New England Magazine, 1889. 

Hunter. Joseph Hunter, The Founders of New Plymouth, 1832. 

Moore. Jacob Baily Moore, Memoirs of American Govern- 

ors, 1846. 
Neal. Daniel Neal's History of New England, 1747. 

Hubbard. History of New England. 

Mather. Cotton Mather's Magnalia Christi — Americana. 

Fessenden. G. M. Fessenden, New England Historical and 

Genealogical Register, Vol. 4. 
Lord. Arthur Lord, In New England Magazine, 1893. 

Morse. Abner Morse, N. E. H. & G. Register, Vol. 19. 

Alden. Mrs. Charles L. Alden, N. E. H. & G. Register, 

Vol. 48. 
Register. New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 

Vols. 2, 4, 5, 10, 20. 
Drake. Samuel G. Drake, The Histories and Antiquities of 

Boston, 1856. 



COPYRIGHTS BY PERMISSION. 

Davis. William T. Davis, Ancient Land Marks of Plymouth. 

Copyright 1883, by the author. 
Davis. History of Plymouth, Mass. Copyright 1885, by J. 

W. Lewis & Co., Philadelphia. 

Tyler. Moses Coit Tyler, History of American Literature. 

Copyright 1897, by the author. 

Brown. John Brown, The Pilgrim Fathers of New England. 

Copyright 1896, by Fleming H. Revel Co., New York. 

Goodwin. John A. Goodwin, The Pilgrim Republic. Copyright 
1879, b y trie author, 1888, by William Bradford 
Goodwin. 

Dexter. Morton Dexter, Story of the Pilgrims. Copyright 

1894, by the author. 

Capen. Nahum Capen, The History of Democracy. Copy- 

right 1874, by the author. 

Haxtun. Mrs. A. A. Haxtun, Signers of the Mayflower Com- 

pact. Part I. Copyright 1896, by the New York 
Mail and Express. 



OTHER AUTHORITIES. 



Amory H. Bradford, The Pilgrims in Old England, 1893. 

The Book of the Pilgrimage, 1896. 

Plymouth Records. 

Winsor's History of Duxbury, Mass., 1849. 

Richards Genealogy, by Rev. Abner Morse, A. M., 1861. 

N. E. H. & G. Register, Vols. 4, 48 and 50. 



GOVERNOR 
WILLIAM BRADFORD, 

AND HIS SON 

MAJOR WILLIAM BRADFORD. 



THE NAME. 

The name of Bradford is derived from the Saxon 
"Bradenford" or "Broad-ford," and is doubtless very 
ancient. Two towns of considerable size in England, are 
known by this name ; one in Wiltshire, near Bath, the other 
in Yorkshire, near Leeds. The latter of these, we suppose 
to have been the locality from whence originated the great 
founder of the name in the United States. 

Bradford, situated near Avon in Wiltshire on the abrupt « 
declivity of a hill, three and a half miles northwest from £ 
Salisbury, owes its name to the broad ford of the river. 

Names of individuals were often derived from the names 
of the places at which they happened to reside ; and names 
thus acquired were transmitted to families. Hence, some in- 
dividual who resided at some time, at some broad ford of 
some stream, river or estuary, in due time was called by the 
name of the locality, Broad Ford and afterwards Bradford as 
a more convenient word of utterance. 

Note. — The marginal lines denote that the matter opposite each line is literally or sub- 
stantially quoted from the work indicated by the adjacent name in the margin. 



14 BRADFORD. 

ANCESTRY. 

William Bradford, Yeoman, was living at Austerfield, York- 
shire in 1575, at which time he was subsidized on twenty shillings 
land annual value. Of his wife nothing is known. The time of 
his death appears only from a record of his burial which is recorded 
as on January 10, 1595-6. 

HIS CHILDREN WERE. 

i. William, of Austerfield, Yeoman, m. Alice Hanson, daugh- 
of John and Margaret (Gresham), Hanson, June 21, 1584. 
He was buried July 15, 1591. She probably m. 2d. 
Robert Eriggs, Sept. 23, 1593. We have no record of her 
death, but it was probably quite early, as her son William 
was in the care of his grandfather in 1595. 

2. Thomas, of whom we have no records, except that he had 
a daughter Margaret, bapt. March 9, 1577-8. 

3. Robert, bapt. June 25, 1561, m. Alice Waigestafe Jan. 31, 
1585-6. She was buried July 13, 1600. He was assessed 
in the subsidy of 1598. Made his will April 15, 1607 and 
was buried April 23, 1607. Had five children. 

4. Elizabeth, bapt. July 16, 1570, m. James Hill, Jan. 20, 
I59.S-6. 

William Bradford, son of William, m. Alice Hanson, 
June 21, 1584. 

their children were. 

1. Margaret, bap. Mar. 8, 1585, and was buried the next 
day. 

2. Alice, bapt. Oct. 30, 1587. The last record of this name 
is "Alice Bradford died Jan. 30, 1607." 

3. William, bap. Mar. 19, 1589, and became Governor 
Bradford of Plymouth, Mass. 





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15 



IN AUSTERFIELD. 

Two miles and a half north of Scrooby, by a path along 
the meadows of the Idle, and also on the Great Northern 
Road, lies the Yorkshire village of Austerfield, in the north 
of England. So poor and few were its inhabitants that at the 
subsidy «>f 1575 the only laymen of sufficient property to be 
rated were Wdliam Bradford and John Hanson, two of those 
small landholders known as yeomen, once so important a sec- 
tion of the English commons, coming next to gentry, but now 
hardly known as a class. 

Bradford was taxed on 20 shillings land and Hanson on 
60 shillings goods, annual value. It is not known who the 
wife of this Bradford was, but John Hanson had married 
Margaret Gresham on July 23d, 1560. The Greshams were 
a people of better account though not called to Herald's visi- 
tations. Although in a place of general poverty Bradford 
and Hanson stood in some degree above their neighbors, ex- 
cept the incumbent of the chapel, who, like other clergymen, 
was not subject to the tax. 

Bradford had a son William and Hanson had a daughter Alice, 
and it is recorded that "William Bradfourth and Alice Hanson" 
were married 28 June 1584, and that their son William was bap- 
tized 19 March 1589. He was baptized by the Rev. Henry 
Fletcher at St. Helen's, the quaint little chapel of Austerfield 
which is still standing. 

Here too is the rough stone font in which he was bap- 
tized. This font is several feet in circumference, and is « 
rather rudely dug out into the shape of a very large thick h 
bowl. Its identity is unquestionable. A few years since, § 
(this was in 1866), anew and more elegant font was obtained 



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1 and the old one was thrown aside, and was used by an old 
lady to water her fowls, but it has been restored to the chapel, 
and could not readily be bought with money. It was, when 
in use, placed on a wooden pedestal or block, but it is now 

; resting from its sacred service upon the floor of the chapel. 




ANCIENT CHAPEL, AUSTERFIELD ENG. 



It is only by the record of this baptism of the future Governor 
of the Pilgrim Republic that the obscure village of Austerfield is 
now known in History. In fact it came near lying ever in obscu- 
rity for Bradford had been dead nearly two hundred years before 
the place of his birth was correctly known. 



AUSTERFIELD. ] 7 



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In 1854 the Rev. Joseph Hunter published his "Founders 
of New England." Mather had said that Bradford was born 
in Ansterfield, but no one knew where that was for the good 
reason that there was no such place. 

It is to Dr. Cotton Mather that we are indebted for 
what is know of the early life of Bradford. An unfortunate, 
but very excusable misprint in Dr. Mather's work, or more 
probably a mistake in the manuscript, has frustrated all former 
enquirers into the origin and family connections of Bradford, 
about which curiosity has been alive. In the Magnalia we 
read that he was born in Ansterfield. No such place can be 
found in the villare of England, and therefore the name was 
no guide to the country. But in fact what is printed Anster- 
field ought to be Austerfield, a village near Scrooby, being 
about as far to the northeast of Bawtry as Scrooby is to the £ 
vSouth. x 

Austerfield is an ancient village consisting then, as it 
does now, of a few houses inhabited by persons engaged in 
the occupation of husbandry, and a small chapel of a very 
early age. Unlike Scrooby in that respect, whose early reg- 
isters are lost, Austerfield has preserved them from the 
beginning in a good state, and it is chiefly by the help of 
what is recorded in them that we are able to show that this 
was the birth place of Gov. Bradford, and to give some ac- 
count, such as it is, of his family. 



Austerfield, as well as Bawtry was in the days of Brad- 
ford, a royal manor, having been acquired by the crown, by 
forfeitures or marriages from the illustrious and well known I g 
heir of Nevil and Dispencer. The Bradfords were farmers of | £ 
the demense. 



i8 



BRADFORD. 



The date of Bradford's birth is not definitely known and is 
variously estimated from 1588 to 1590. He gave the age of 23 at 
the time of his first marriage in 1613. He was 32 when first chosen 
Governor in 1621, and Mather says he was 69 at the time of his 
death in 1657. He was probably born about 1589. 




BRADFORD HOUSE, AUSTERFIELD, ENG. 



At the northern end of the village is a cottage now 
I divided into two tenements which is believed to have been 
the house where Bradford was born. 



On July 15, 159 1, when William was about 18 months old his 
father was buried, and it is generally believed that his mother 
died soon after. 



AUSTERFIELD. 19 



One Alice Bradford, supposed to have been the mother # 

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of William, married at Austerfield, Robert Briggs, Sept. 2^. 
1593, and this is the last record we have of her. 



The infant William was early in the care of his grandfather 
William, who was buried on Jan. 10, 1596, and the seven year old 
boy was then given to the care of his Uncles Thomas and Robert. 
Of Thomas but little is known. Robert was assessed at Austerfield 
to the subsidy of 1593. One authority claims that he resided at 
Scrooby, and thus places William there at a very early age. 

Robert Bradford made his will in 1609, and therein de 
scribed himself as Robert Bradford of Austerfield, Yeoman 
Bradfurth or Bradfourth is the more usual orthography of all I w 
the Bradfords of that period. They were "yeomen," which £ 
implies a condition of life a little better than that which 
would now be indicated by the word. 

From extracts of wills and other records we learn that the 
Bradfords were men of good repute, and were associated with the 
best of society, "although William alone gives consequence to the 
Bradfords of Austerfield." 



K 



Mather says the people of Austerfield "were as unac- 
quainted with the Bible as the Jews do seem to have been 
with part of it in the days of Josiah ; a most ignorant and 
licentious people like unto their priest." 

The moral and religious state of the village was probably 
neither much better nor much worse than were the other ag- 
ricultural villages of England at that time. Of the priest 
we may conclude from what is said by Dr. Mather that Brad- 
ford owed little to him of that deeply contemplative and 
religious turn of mind, which was remarked in him as early 



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BRADFORD. 



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as his twelfth year. He was brought up as the sons of yeo- 
manry in those days were; attending to husbandry operations. 
His uncle intended him for agriculture, but his health being 
poor he seems to have been allowed to indulge his natural 
desire for study. 

We often hear of Bradford's lack of educational 
advantages from writers who, misinformed or uninformed, 
think that his early life was spent in the tillage of those patri- 
monial acres and to a vain effort at marriage into a neighbor- 
ing family of Carpenters supposed to rank as his social 
superiors. But in fact the records show that there was no 
such Carpenter family in that region. Bradford represented 
the two leading families of Austerfield. He had barely 
reached the age of 18 when he became an exile from England 
and his scholarly character very strongly implies close study 
and good training in his youth. 



One writer says he "was reared in a house which possessed a 
library of English and Latin books, no insignificant sign of pros- 
perity when books were rare and costly," but whether this is true 
or not, a friend of the Bradfords near Austerfield had such a library 
which was, perhaps, used by the Governor in his youth. 



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The early loss of his parents and grandfather probably 
gave a serious cast to his mind, and he devoted all his leisure 
time to reading the scriptures. 



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When the English Puritans gathered together under 
Clifton, a sedate youth then scarcely twelve years of age, of 
a grave countenance and earnest manner was observed to be 
a constant attendant. That youth was William Bradford, 
who sought gratification in the Bible and he drank deep of 
the fountain of truth in the sacred volume. 



ASSOCIATES WITH BREWSTER. 2 1 



Soon and long sickness kept him, as he would afterwards 
thankfully say, from the vanities of youth, and made him the 

i 

fitter for what he was afterwards to undergo. 



From the day of his advent into the world where he was 
eventually to become so important a factor, he associated 
himself with William Brewster. The tie so started was a 
very trifling one, but the oak grew from the little acorn o^ 
omen, and the man who was appointed Post of Scrooby the 
year of William Bradford's birth, became his dearest friend 
and wisest guide. * * * Brewster with his special gift of 
teaching, and intense humanity, would hardly neglect the 
opportunity of directing the studies of this young aspirant 
for knowledge. 



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His nature was earnest, and true, and steady, and thus h 
early in life the religious spirit in him was awakened to 2 
action. £ 



His soul wanted something more than he could get from 
the stolid incumbent of his ancestral parish. From his 
uncles he had little sympathy, and from his young friends he 
received coarse ridicule. Soon the eager lad found his way 
to Brewster, Sunday mornings he followed the meadow paths, 
instead of the road, in making his way to Scrooby, and thence 
accompanied his friend to Babworth and Clifton. Babworth 
was not less than six or seven miles from Austerfield. As the 
grave, middle aged courtier and the earnest, confiding youth 
paced along their fragrant pathway, little did they look like 
the Moses and Aaron who were to establish the ark of the 
covenant in a Canaan yet to be conquered from the Trans- 
atlantic wilderness. 



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22 



BRAIU'ORI). 



Bradford found in Brewster not only religious sympathy 

but also secular instruction, his friend was a born teacher, 

and was rarely qualified to pass beyond the meagre range of 

g text books and make his pupil familiar with the affairs of 

2 camps, courts, and courtiers. The youth who had a fond- 

o ness for history and antiquities, must have found no little 

enjoyment and profit in studying the Scrooby palace in its 

decaying grandeur, especially with the expositions of its 

learned master. 



It is only by one of Bradford's writings that this Scrooby 
Palace or old Manor house is identified as the home of Brewster, 
and of the Scrooby church. 



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When the boy had reached sixteen years there came a 
rude change. Prelatical persecution had become active in 
Basset Lawe. Some of the clergymen whom Brewster had 
with such sacrifice procured for neglected parishes, were 
driven from their pulpits while many others were harrassed 
and threatened. 



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When Clifton's voice was silenced by authority, Brad- 
ford would be among those who reclaimed against the unwise 
and oppressive act. Young as he was he would be likely to 
see that no other way had remained for him and that it was 
his own duty and highest interest to render him all the en- 
couragement in his power. 



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At last he formed a resolution to withdraw from the 
communion of the parish assemblies and engage with some 
society of the faithful, that should keep close unto the 
written word of God as the rule of their worship. 



SUFFERINGS AT SCROOBY. 23 



Opposing himself to the wishes of his family and daring 
the derision which would be showered upon him by the 
clowns of Austerfield, he declared himself a Separatist, joined 
the Scrooby Church and became a very active and useful 
person in the difficult operations they were soon called on to 
perform. This seems to have been the part he took when he 
was from fifteen to eighteen years of age. 



x 



To all remonstrances against joining the outlawed church 

of the Pilgrims, he answered that "to keep a good conscience 

and walk in such a way as God has prescribed in his word is > 

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a thing which I shall prefer above you all, and above life Q 

itself." 

Some lamented him, some derided him, all dissuaded 

him : nevertheless, the more they did it, the more fixed he d 

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was in his purpose to seek the ordinances of the gospel, s 

where they should be dispensed with the most commanded g 

purity. 

He was one of the foremost advocates of the removal of the 
Pilgrims to Holland. 

There is a charm in the simple English, and in the quiet 
pathos of Bradford's own words as he depicts the sufferings 
of these persecuted ones, particularly of the little congrega- 
tion at Scrooby. He says : " But after these things they 
could not longer continue in any peaceable condition, but £■ 
were hunted and persecuted on every side, so as their former > 
afflictions were but as flea bitings in comparison of these 
which now came upon them. For some had their houses be- 
set and watched night and day, and hardly escaped their 
hands ; and the most were fain to fly and leave their houses 



24 BRADFORD. 



and habitations, and the means of their livelihood. Yet these 
and many other sharper things which afterwards befel them 
were no other than they looked for, and therefore were the 
y better prepared to bear them by the assistance of God's grace 
and spirit. Yet seeing themselves molested, and that there 
was no hope of their continuance there, by a joint consent 
they resolved to go into the Low-Countries where they heard 
was freedom of religion for all men." 



j 



When Bradford was only 18 years old he was, with others, 
imprisoned at Boston in Lincolnshire, for attempting to escape to 
Holland. Some say that in pity to his youth he was released 
sooner than the rest, but seven of the leaders were retained after 
the major portion were discharged, and it is believed that Bradford 
was one of the seven leaders so retained. 

IN HOLLAND. 

After many difficulties and disappointments, he finally suc- 
ceeded in reaching Holland in 1609. 



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It is to Bradford's energy, while still quite a young man, 
the church appears to have been greatly indebted in the 
trying circumstances which attended its removal from England. 

After reaching Zealand he was not long ashore ere a 
viper seized on his hand, that is, an officer who carried him 
unto the magistrates, unto whom an envious passenger had 
accused him as having fled out of England. When the mag- 
istrates understood the true cause of his coming thither they 
were well satisfied with him, and so he repaired joyfully unto 
his brethren at Amsterdam. 

Here he served a Frenchman at the working of silks, or in 
other words "put himself as apprentice to a French Protestant, 
who taught him the art of silk dyeing." 



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IN HOLLAND. 25 



At the end of two years, he did, being of age to do it, 
convert his estate in England into money, but setting up for 
himself he found some of his designs, by the providence of 
God frowned upon ; which he judged a correction bestowed 
by God upon him for certain decays of internal piety where- 
into he had fallen. The consumption of his estate he thought 
came to prevent a consumption of his virtue. 



< 



His marriage bans, as recorded at Leyden, style him a fustian 
worker, and others have called him a weaver of fustian or frieze. 
Fustian was a coarse cloth of cotton and flax, and includes cor- 
duroy, mole skin, and velveteen. If he first learned silk dyeing or 
working at Amsterdam when in his minority, abandoned it for 
commercial pursuits on becoming of age, and failing in this learned 
fustian working at Leyden, the various accounts of his occupation 
would harmonize. 



He was a person of study as well as action ; and hence 
notwithstanding the difficulties through which he passed in 
his youth, he attained unto a notable skill in languages, the 3 
Dutch tongue was become almost as vernacular to him as the i ^ 
English, the French tongue he could manage, the Latin and 
Greek he mastered, but Hebrew he most of all studied. 



He stood by the Pilgrims with head, hands, heart and 
purse, and shared every suffering. 



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We find him registered as a citizen of Leyden, March 30, 
1 61 2, as William Bradford, Englishman, admitted upon the proof 
and security of Roger Wilson and William Lysle. 



26 BRADFORD. 



The bans of matrimony are published at Leyden, between 

£ William Bretfoort, fustian worker, a young man from Oster- 

P felt, Eng. , and Dorothea May, from Witsburtz (Wisbeach, 

Cambridge, Eng.), Nov. 15, 1613, at which time Bradford 

declared that he had no elders, that is parents. 



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Their marriage is recorded at Amsterdam as on Dec. 9, 1613, 
where his age is given as 23, and her age as 16. 



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At Amsterdam parties to a marriage contract wrote their 
own names, and the name " Dority May " then written is the 
only autograph of her that is now known. 



She was probably the daughter of John and Cornelia (Bowes), 
May, and granddaughter John May, Bishop of Carlisle, 1577. 

IN AMERICA. 
After Bradford had resided in Holland about half a score 
of years, he was one of those who bore a part in that hazard- 
ous and generous enterprise of removing into New England, 
with a part of Robinson's English church at Leyden. 



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He and his wife came over in the Mayflower, leaving behind 
them their only child John. She was only permitted to come in 
sight of the promised land, as she fell overboard and was drowned 
in Cape Cod Harbor, December 7, 1620. During the first year at 
Plymouth he was one of the foremost in all their undertakings and 
many privations. 



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His zeal and devotion to the society, his enterprising 
spirit and his industry, all conspired to give him such a de- 
gree of consideration that upon the death of Governor John 
Carver (although Bradford was then very ill), all eyes were 



CHOSEN GOVERNOR. 29 



turned upon him as Carver's successor. The Company post- [ . 

poned the election until he had partially recovered and then | H 

unanimously elected him governor at the early age of i ^ 
thirty-two. 



Bradford says in his history that, " Shortly after (the death of 
Carver), William Bradford was chosen Governor in his stead, and 
not being yet recovered of his illness in which he had been near 
ye point of death, Isaak Allerton was chosen to be an assistant 
unto him, who, by renewed election every year, continued sundry 
years together, which I here note once for all." Although he 
faithfully recorded the election of all other Governors, out of 
modesty he omits to record his own reelection from time 10 time, 
and nowhere in his history does he mention after 1621, the fact 
that he was their Governor. 

When the day of the annual election arrived 1624, Gov- j 
ernor Bradford was very anxious to be relieved from the , « 
toils of the office, representing to the people that whether the 3 
office were honorable or burthensome, others ought to share £j 
it, but notwithstanding his remonstrances they elected him. 

His judgment and prudence had now for the three years ! 
past, commended him to the highest place of rule amongst 
them, by the unanimous consent of all the people. But % 
having yoked five men besides him in the government, they « 
gave him the advantage of the yoke by a double voice on the x 
casting vote. 

In 1633 Bradford having now been chosen Governor 
twelve years in succession, importuned the people with so <j> 
much earnestness that they consented to release him, and I 3 
Edward Winslow was chosen his successor, with Bradford as < 
first assistant or deputy governor. 



30 BRADFORD. 

After two years, 1635, Bradford was again chosen governor, 
was again relieved by Winslow in 1636, reelected in 1637, relieved 
by Prince in 1638, reelected in 1639, relieved for the last time by 
Winslow in 1644, and reelected in 1645. 



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The leader of the people in a wilderness had need to be 
a Moses, and if a Moses had not led the people of Plymouth 
Colony when this worthy person was their Governor, the 
people had never with so much unanimity and importunity 
still called him to lead them. 

The inhabitants of New Plymouth found so great ad- 
vantage for divers years in the wisdom and gravity of Mr. 
Bradford, that they never durst attempt to make any change 
in their Governor. 

In June 1656 he was chosen Governor for the thirty- 
first time and Standish was again placed by his side as one of 
the assistants. When the freemen next gathered in court of 
election it must have been with full hearts and moistened 
eyes that they regarded those two vacant seats. 



In each of the few years that Bradford was not elected gov- 
ernor, he was chosen deputy governor. This continuous service 
had been against his wishes. 



He was a person of excellent temper, as appears by his 
admirable management of the peevish and forward humours 
of the people, under the inexpressible hardships they suffered 
the first three or four years of their settlement, but he bore a 
part in them all himself and animated the people by his own 
example. 



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THE GOVERNOR'S DUTIES. 



Dr. Prince who had one of Bradford's small books, says 
it contained, in Bradford's own hand, a register of the early 
deaths, marriages and punishments at Plymouth. 



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He was empowered to appoint a deputy governor to re- ' 
lieve his labor, but he never did so. Although New Plymouth g 
was still a small colony, the governor's duties were heavy ; | 



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for he was chief justice, minister of foreign affairs, speaker of o 
the General Court and auditor of the treasury. 

He was also their clerk or secretary. 

The meersteads and garden plots of those which came | 
first, laid out in December, 1620, are recorded in his hand ! g 
writing, also in 1623, and appear to have been written in the 
years mentioned of record. 



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In addition to the office of Governor and Deputy Gov- 
ernor, he represented Plymouth at the meeting of the Com- 

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missioners of the United Colonies at Boston, 1653, and at 1 3 

Plymouth in 1656. In 1648 and in 1656 he was President of 
that Congress. 



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The early meetings of the town were held at the governor's 
house, but no record states who presided. It was the duty of the 
Governor to entertain strangers, especially those who came on 
public affairs. 

The French Jesuit, Driullette, who came to Boston in 
1650, and improved the opportunity to spend a day at 
Plymouth, especially mentions Bradford's kindness, and the g 
fact that the day being Friday, the Governor gave him an o 
excellent dinner of fish. 



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3 2 BRADFORD. 

In 1632 Governor Winthrop and others were entertained 
at Bradford's house. They came part of the way in Captain 
Pierce's shallop, landing at Wessaguscus. 

The company proceeded on foot to Plymouth to pay 
Govornor Bradford a visit. They did not arrive there till 
"within the evening." By some means, not mentioned, their 
approach to Plymouth was known to the authorities there, 
and the Governor, Mr. Bradford, a very discreet and grave 
man, with Mr. Brewster and some others, went fourth and 
met them without the town, conducted them to the Governor's 
house, where they were together entertained. 

The meeting on the Lord's day is described in Winthrop's 
journal as follows : "In the afternoon Mr. Roger Williams, 
according to custom, proposes a question to which the pastor, 
Mr. Smith, speaks briefly, then Mr. Williams prophecies (or 
explains), and after him the Governor of Plymouth (who had 
studied the Hebrew languages and antiquities), speaks to the 
question, after him the elder, then two or three more of the 
congregation. Then the elder desires Governor Winthrop 
and Mr. Wilson to speak to it, which they do, when this is 
ended Mr. Fuller, the deacon, puts the congregation in mind 
of their duty, the contribution, whereupon the Governor and 
all the rest go down to the deacon's seat and put it in the 
bag and then return." 



BRADFORD'S CHARACTER. 

Bradford's life was so interwoven with that of his 
Colony that the record of either is the history of both. 

So full of dangers was the period of the first few years, 
that it was only by the prudence of Bradford, the matchless 
valor of Standish, and the incessant enterprise of Winslow, 
that the colony was saved from destruction. 



HIS CHARACTER. 33 



The history of the colony rarely rises above the merest I g 
common place after those three consecutive years, in which J ^ 
died Winslow, Standish and Bradford. 



It may be observed of Bradford that he was a sensible 
man, of a strong mind, a sound judgment, and a good 
memory. He had read much of history and philosophy, but 
theology was his favorite study. He was able to manage the 



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Amory H. Bradford says that the "three most conspicuous 
leaders among the Pilgrims were Robinson, Brewster and Bradford." 

Bradford was the staff and the support of Plymouth 
Colony. With such men as Brewster, Robinson and Brad- 
ford as a part of its ingredients, it is surely not to be 
wondered that the colony was led courageously and safely 
through the perilous paths with which it was destined to I Q 
tread and finally planted on permanent foundations in the 
wilderness of the western world. 

Brewster's hand had long been taken from Bradford's head 
as he knelt within his reach. The coining man was demand- 
ing more outward respect, but the Elder prayed better, the ^ 
words rang out truer, when he could feel that Bradford was 
beside him, and their hearts were pouring out in unison the 
same thanks for blessings received and desire for their 
continuance. 

Carver, Bradford, Brewster, Standish, Winslow, Allerton, 
Hopkins, and Robinson were all called fanatics (and hated as 
such), when subjected to oppression in England, they were '' h 
all kind and good citizens in Holland, and became even con- 
servative in America, where they could be free to make their 
own laws and to obey them. 



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34 BRADFORD. 



polemic part of it with much dexterity, and was particularly 
vigilant against the sectaries which infested the colonies, 
though by no means severe or intolerant as long as they con- 
tinued peaceable ; wishing rather to foil them by argument, 
and guard the people against receiving their tenets, than to 
suppress them by violence. Mr. Hubbard's character of him 
is that he was a " person of great gravity and prudence, of 
sober principles and for one of his persuasion (Brownists), 
very pliable, gentle and condescending. 



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But the crown of all was his holy prayerful, watchful, 
and fruitful walk with God wherein he was very exemplary. 

He was a diligent letter writer, and an excellent one, 
which renders the extensive destruction of his letter book 
especially lamentable. 

He was a man of learning, discretion and sound judg- 
ment, and employed much of his time in the business of the 
colony, and wrote much of a public nature. 

He was able to express himself readily and properly, and 

did not fear a disputant. From a sickly boy he grew to be a 

h healthy, robust man. He laid his hand to work and did it. 

g In Holland he needed a new trade, and he learned to be a 

£] dyer. In America he was required to administer the affairs 

of a small nation, and he did it, calmly, and sagaciously, 

and bravely. 



Men are but flocks. Bradford beheld their need. 
And long did them at once both rule and feed. 



h On a time some young men declined to work on Christ- 



2 mas, having conscientious scruples, as they thought, superior 



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ri to the necessities of the infant state, but in the course of the 






AS GOVERNOR. 35 

day, they indulged themselves in a game of ball. Bradford 
told them that their conscientious scruples might be urgent, 
but so were his, and he could not allow them to play while 
others were at work, and for their benefit. 

When Lyford and Oldham plotted mischief, and pro- 
ceeded toward action, the Governor met the case at the out- ^ 
set face to face ; he did not allow the mischief to come to a g 
head through any squeamish theories or fears. He intercepted 
their letters, and thus obtained the proof by which they were 
convicted. His business was to watch the interest of those 
who, engaged in other ways, had entrusted their public affairs 
to him. He did not wait for mischief to seek him, but find- 
ing it he put it out. 

Opening the confidential letters was an act which hardly 
comported with the high and honorable character which 
Bradford always sustained, but he knew his adversary, and 
his suspicions were justified by his discoveries. He sought 
only the good of the colony, with whose safety he was espe- 
cially entrusted, and he furnished himself with the means of 
destroying a turbulent faction before they could endanger its 
peace. 

As Governor, he showed gifts which the life of a strug- 
ling exile in a foreign land, together with the stern discipline 
of Puritan training, had done something to foster and develop, 
but which no external influence can implant in a nature where 
the roots do not grow strong. 

His position was not so much that of Governor of a 
political community, as the manager of an industrial concern, 
working for exacting and sympathetic employers, with scanty 
resources and heavy incumbrances. It was his doctrine that 
legislators and rulers must take men as they are, that they 



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36 BRADFORD. 



must uncomplainingly adapt their arrangements to the condi- 
tions of imperfect human nature. Bradford fully believed in 
divine guidance, but he sought it in a careful study of the 
ordinary facts of human life, and in patient submission to 
its conditions. 

To place him in the foremost rank of distinguished ad- 
ministrators would be extravagant. The size of the field 
wherein Bradford worked, and the comparative simplicity of 
the duties laid upon him, forbid that view. But one may at 
least say that he succeeded where greater men would have 
failed. The gifts needed for his work are not easily found 
in combination, energy restrained by patience and not lightly 
wearied by the indifference or perversity of others ; a firm, 
and ever-present sense of great aims, coupled with a clear 
sighted perception of the every-day wants, and the practical 
conditions of life; and all these gifts Bradford possessed. 



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He conducted the affairs of the colony with consummate 
prudence and ability for a period of thirty-seven years. 



He was a man of nerve and public spirit, he was truly a 
father to the colony. 

As long as Bradford lived no minister ever dared to 
g aspire to lead them as Robinson had done at Amsterdam and 
< Leyden. 

Early in 1622 disagreements among the Adventurers be- 
i, came so sharp that Weston wrote to the colony proposing 
£ that the mutual contract be abandoned. Bradford prudently 
Q kept this news secret for a time, fearing that the courage of 
his associates would fail wholly if they should learn that the 



COLONY AFFAIRS. 37 



Adventurers wish to abandon them, small though the aid re- f 
ceived from that source had been. His discretion was jus- 1 £ 
tified by later developments, when it was found that Weston h 



had been seeking to deceive the Pilgrims, and meant to injure 
them. 



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In Bradford's transactions with the Indians he was 
strictly just, and after those unavoidable sparklings which 
the neighborhood of two distinct races of men like the col- w 
lision of flint and steel, are sure to strike out at first, the > 
animosities which vicinage engendered were allayed, he pre- m 
served the relations of peace unbroken. 

By his prompt and energetic action, upon the discovery of the 
Indians plot to kill the colony, he averted much bloodshed. 

The spirit of the neighboring Indians was completely 
subdued, and no more attempts were made against the 
Plymouth colony for more than fifty years. His mingled 
system of mildness and energy conciliated their affection, 
and extorted their respect. When necessary, he alarmed 
their fears. When the emblematic defiance of the sachem of 
the Narragansetts was conveyed in the shape of a bundle of 
arrows bound together by the skin of a serpent, he answered 
it promptly by sending back the skin filled with powder and 
bullets. He soon understood all the peculiarities of their 
simple character. 



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In the early perils and labors of the settlement he stood 
side by side with Carver, Standish and Winslow. 



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Bradford and thirteen others personally assumed the entire 
indebtedness of the colony to the Adventurers and others, amount- 
ing to 2,400 pounds. 



38 



BRADFORD. 



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William Bradford is one of the few Pilgrims of whom 
much can be written without conjecture. He started his life 
with a record, and left one which admits of pride on the part 
of his descendants. Even those who have no blood relation 
to claim, can enjoy, with those who have, without the slightest 
desire to repudiate any of his actions, 

From the time of Bradford's arrival in Holland, until 
his departure for New England, he seems to have gone on his 
way slowly, steadily, gaining strength in the march. From 
the time Bradford put ashore at New England his strength 
and power grew rapidly. 

In bodily labors he wrought beside the strongest; in 
action he was of the bravest; and in council he led the 
wisest. From that sad day when the handful of convales- 
cents fired their match locks over the grave of Carver, to that 
which more than a third of a century later saw his own de- 
parture, he had gone before the foremost and stood without a 
peer. 

He was one of the most efficient persons in directing and 
sustaining the new settlement. He was the very prop and 
glory of the Plymouth Colony during all the whole series of 
changes that passed over it. 

He was a Gentleman of a very noble and generous Spirit, 
laying aside all private Views when they stood in competition 
with publick good of the country, as appears by this example. 
When the Crown of England gave the Colony of Plymouth a 
patent for their lands, the patent was drawn in the name of 
William Bradford, his heirs, associates and assigns, which 
gave him the propriety of the whole country, but later he 
generously surrendered it into their hands. This endeared 
him so much to the people, that they chose him, in a manner, 
Governor for life. 



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LIBERAL CHARACTER. 39 



Itis interesting to know that "Gov. Bradford of Plymouth 
Colony, about 1630 was offered manorial privileges by the 
'Council for New England' whose president was the Earl of 
Warwick ; the patent ran to William Bradford and his heirs 
forever, who were given the right to hold the present counties 
of Barnstable and Plymouth as a manor, and the other colo- 
nists as their tenants and subordinates. Gov. Bradford 
would have been well fitted to have become Lord of the 
Manor, had he so chosen, for though poor, he came of an 
ancient and good family." 

Unlike Winthrop, Bradford was remarkably free from the 
prevalent superstitions of his time. He never renounced the 
name of the days and months; he declined to express an opinion 
that the eclipse of 1635 had any connection with the preceed- 
ing storm ; he never mentioned the comets which so generally 
alarmed, even the educated people of that country; nor has 
he ever alluded to witchcraft over which princes, ecclesiastics, 
universities and magistrates of the highest standing in Europe 
and America were then as mad as their most ignorant neigh- 



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bors. Through long years he sowed the seed of liberality ; § 
and his is the glory, though in his old age he left others to § 
tend the crop. He was the man of a thousand, yea of 
many thousands, for the especial place which called him to 
its service. Wonderful indeed was it that a single ship load 
of yeomen and artisans, cast up like waifs on the shore of an 
unknown wilderness should have had not only a Carver, 
Brewster, and Fuller, but also such a greater trio as Winslow, 
Standish and Bradford. 

With the death of Standish and Bradford the original 
leaders of the Pilgrims disappeared and with them much of | <» 
that sweetness and moderation and liberality which under < 
their influence and example had characterized the Old Colony 



4° BRADFORD. 



Bradford had scarcely been three months in his grave be- 
fore the narrower spirit of Massachusetts began to make 
itself felt where he had always exercised a restraining hand. 
Gov. Bradford died in March, and in June following it was 
ordered by the court that any quaker ranter or other noto- 
rious heritics, 



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be ordered to the place from whence they came, with a fine 
of twenty shillings for every week that they shall stay after such 
order. 



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After Bradford's death, those who were left offered a 
feeble barrier to the tide of bigotry which had then set in. 

He read much on subjects of History and philosophy. 
He had the tastes of a student and became somewhat accom- 
plished as a linguist, philosopher and theologian. 

He left a library consisting of two hundred and seventy- 
five volumes, no small collection when we remember the 
times. 



It was larger than any library in the Colony, except that of 
Brewster. Governor Bradford, during his life time, gave most of 
these books to his son William, who was an antiquarian and a 
latin scholar. Major William gave to his son Samuel all his latin 
books " to encourage him in bringing up one of his sons to learn- 
ing, and to be by him given to his said son whom he shall so 
bring up." The rest of his books were left in trust to be delivered 
to said son of his son Samuel, if he should be "brought" up to 
learning. 



POETRY. 41 



Governor Bradford seems to have been a man of grave 
and modest demeanor, but of unusual versatility, good judg- « 



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ment and executive capacity and especially in view of his £ 



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early life of exceptional culture. Bradford's writings are a 
exceedingly valuable. 

The well composed and useful dialogue by that honored 
pattern of piety, is a defense of the cause the Pilgrim fathers £ 
suffered for being no other in effect but what our (Plymouth) £ 
church, and the churches of Christ in New England do pro- § 
fess and practice. 

In his will he refers to "some small books written by his own 
hand," but these small books, so historically valuable, disappeared 
generations ago and their very subjects are unknown, except 
strange to say, "Sundry useful verses," and the book mentioned 
by Prince. 

In his attempt at poetry the muses were woo'd in vain ; > m 

his verses are prosaic, rough and inelegant. > 

n 

Some of them appear in Morton's Memorial from which we 
select the following : 

"From my years young in days of youth, 

God did make known to me His truth, 

And call'd me from my native place, 

For to enjoy the means of grace. ^ 

In wilderness he did me guide h 

And in strange lands for me provide, § 

In fears and wants, through weal and woe, 

A pilgrim, past I to and fro ; 

Oft left of them whom I did trust ; 



42 BRADFORD. 



How vain it is to rest on dust ; 

A man of sorrows I have been 

And many changes I have seen, 

Wars, wants, peace, plenty, have I known, 

And some advanced, others thrown down. 

The humble poor, cheerful and glad, 

Rich, discontent, sower and sad 

When fears and sorrows have been mixt. 

Consolations came betwixt. 

Faint not poor soul, in God still trust, 

Fear not the things thou suffer must ; 

For whom he loves he doth chastise 

And then all tears wipe from their eyes. 

Farewell dear children, whom I love, 

Your better Father is above ; 

When I am gone he can supply 

To him I leave you when I die, 

Fear him in truth, walk in his ways 

And he will bless you all your days. 

My days are spent, old age is come 

My strength it fails, my glass near run, 

Now I will wait, when work is done 

Until my happy change shall come 

When from my labors I shall rest, 

With Christ above for to be blest." 



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BRADFORD'S "HISTORY OF PLIMOUTH PLANTATION. 



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It is evident that Governor Bradford early formed the 
plan of writing a history of this colony. In 1625 and 6 he 
says: "It was God's marvelous providence that we were 
ever able to wade through things, as will better appear if 



HISTORY OF PLYMOUTH. 43 



God give me life and opportunity to handle them more par- 
ticularly in another treatise more at large, as I desire and 
purpose, (if God permit)." 



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Among all his public and private engagements he found ! . 

time to prepare a History of the colony, which he had taken | S 

so prominent part in founding, and for very many of the £• 
transactions of the Pilgrims he is the only authority. 

In the fore part of his manuscript history he wrote in connec- 
tion with his Hebrew studies, eight pages of exercises with English 
explanations, commencing with the following statement. 

"Though I am growne aged, yet I have had a longing desire 
to see with my owne eyes something of that most ancient language 
and holy tongue in which the law and oracles of God were write, 
and in which God and Angels spoke to the holy patriarks of old 
time and what names were given to things from the creation. 
And though I cannot attain to much herein, yet I am refreshed to 
have seen some glimpse hereof, (as Moses saw the land of canan 
a farr off), my aime and desire is to see how the words and phrases 
lye in the holy texte and to discerne somewhat of the same for my 
owne contente." 



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To William Bradford, as the simple, but graphic histo- 
rian, we owe a deep debt of gratitude for the records he pre- 
served and the story he told. 

His Journal, or history, is our New England Testament, 
the Genesis, Exodus and Joshua of the Plymouth Plantation, 
the story of the Pilgrim Fathers in Old England, in Holland < 
and in New England, told by one who was one of them from 
the beginning. 



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Bradford proved his capacity and largeness of mind by 
giving us his history, which by its racy English, its far reach- 
ing insight, and quiet strokes of pathos and humor, might 
have beguiled even Shakespeare himself for an hour or more. 

In the simplicity of its style and the felicity of its ex- 
pressions, the history of William Bradford stands easily first 
in contemporaneous accounts of the beginings of a nation, 
and may well serve as a model for future historians. 

No man stands better than he on the rolls of history, 
civil or ecclesiastical. His sound good sense and elevated 
patriotism would have done honor to any age. 

The opportunities which Governor Bradford enjoyed for 
writing the history of this colony were superior in many 
respects to those of any other person. This, taken in con- 
nection with the high character which he has always enjoyed, 
has caused his work to be regarded as of the first authority, 
and is entitled to take precedence of everything else relating 
to the history of the Pilgrims. 

It is the foundation on which, supplemented by a few 
minor authorities, all subsequent accounts of the voyage of 
the Mayflower, of the previous history of those who sailed in 
her, and of the early years of the colony which they founded 
are based. 

Bradford deserves the pre-eminence of being called the 
father of American History. We pay to him also that hom- 
age which we render to those authors who, even by their 
writings, give to us the impression that admirable as they 
may be in authorship, behind their authorship is something 
still more admirable — their own manliness. 



HISTORY OF PLYMOUTH/ 45 



After he had been in America ten years, and had seen 
proof of the success of the heroic movement in which he was 
a leader, his mind seems to have been pressed by the historic 
significance of that movement ; and thenceforward for twenty 
years he gave his leisure to the composition of a work in 
which the story of the settlement of New England should be 
told in a calm, just, and authentic manner. The result was 
his History of Plymouth Plantation, a book which has had 
an extraordinary fate. 



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It was left by its author in manuscript, and so remained for 
more than two hundred years. It was written on one side of the 
paper only, a very remarkable circumstance for those days. 

After his death it came into the hands of his nephew, 
Nathaniel Morton, by whom it was profusely used in the 
composition of his famous New England memorial, published 
in 1699. Afterward the manuscript belonged to Thomas 
Prince, who drew from it what he desired when writing his 
Chronological History of New England. 

By Prince the old book was left at his death in his library 
in the tower of Old South Church, Boston, where it was used 
by Thomas Hutchinson when engaged on his History of 
Massachusetts Bay. It had previously been used by Hubbard 
and Mather. During the occupation of Boston by the 
British troops in 1775-6, Prince's library was plundered and 
many precious historical documents were destroyed. Brad- 
ford's manuscript was known to have been in that library not 
long before, and as afterward it did not appear along with 
the remains of the library, it was given up for lost, and was 
mourned over by American scholars for nearly a hundred 
years. In 1855, however, the long lost treasure was dis- 
covered in England in the Fulham library, the ancient and 



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46 BRADFORD. 



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rich collection belonging to the Bishop of London. It was 
thereupon at once copied and published in this country, and 
by American historical students it was welcomed back into 
life with a sort of jubilant All hail. 

Of this edition of 1856 it was said : 

It is a pity that Gov. Bradford's History could not 
have been published in a manner fully worthy of it. * * * 
There never was a fairer opportunity to honor a founder of 
an empire than was offered in this workof the great Bradford. 
It should have been accompanied by all of his letters that 
could be found, which would in any way elucidate its text, 
and also by a memoir of the author. However, we are 
thankful for Bradford's history in any shape, thankful to 
Mr. Dean for the great care and pains he has bestowed upon it. 

In 1896 a limited fac simile edition was published and since 
then the original has been presented to the state of Massachusetts, 
and two new editions have been printed by that State. This is 
the book which the newspapers have incorrectly persisted in call- 
ing the "Log Book of the Mayflower." 

Senator Hoar says that Bradford's manuscript seems to him 
"the most precious manuscript on earth, unless we could recover 
one of the four gospels as it came in the beginning from the pen 
of the Evangelist. * * * Think of the story of sufferings, of 
sorrows, of peril, of exile, of death, and of lofty triumph which 
that book tells, which the hand of the great leader and founder of 
America has traced on those pages. Of all these things this is 
the original record by the hand of our beloved father and founder. 
There is nothing like it in human annals since the the story of 
Bethlehem." 

There is no other document upon New England history 
that can take precedence of this, either in time or in authority. 
Governor Bradford wrote of events that had passed under 



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HISTORY OF PLYMOUTH. 47 

his own eye, and that had been shaped by his own hand, 
and he had every qualification of a trustworthy narrator. 
His mind was placid, grave, well poised; he was a student 
of many books and of many languages, (Dutch, French, ' § 
Latin, Greek and Hebrew), and being thus developed both > 
by letters and by experience, he was able to tell well the truth 
of history as it had unfolded itself during his own strenuous 
and benignant career. 

It is difficult to see how Bradford, with his life of stren- 
uous action and his scanty resources in the way of books, 
could have had much leisure for study- What Bradford had 
in common with Bunyan, was a mind at once vigorous and £ 
thoroughly artistic, and so steeped in the English version of 
the Bible, that it instinctively and spontaneously found ex- 
pression in Biblical words, phrases and modes of construction. 



His history is an orderly, lucid, and most instructive 
work ; it contains many tokens of its authors appreciation of 
the nature and requirements of historical writings ; and it 
must hence forward take its true place at the head of American 
historical literature, and win for the author the patriotic dig- 
nity that we have ascribed to him. 

The philosophical thoroughness of his plan is indicated 
at the very beginning of his book. In relating the history of 
Plymouth plantation, he undertakes to go back to "the very 
root and rise of the same," and to show its " occasion and 
inducements, " and he avows his purpose to write "in a plain 
style with singular regard unto the simple truth in all things." 
This plan of course conducts him into an account of the 
origin of religious dissent in English churchmen and states- 
men in their attempt to beat back that dissent into submission, 
and to throttle its free voice. He tells of their departure 



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BRADFORD. 



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into Holland, and then their troubles thereabout with some 
of the many difficulties they found and met withal, "of their 
manner of living and entertaining there," of the "reasons 
and causes of their removal" across "the vast and furious 
ocean." The place they had "thoughts on was some of 
those vast and unpeopled countries of America, which are 
fruitful and fit for habitation, being devoid of all civil inhab- 
itants, where there are only salvage and brutish men which 
range up and down, little otherwise than the wild beasts of 
the same." There is something very impressive in the quiet, 
sage words in which he pictures the conflicts of opinion 
among the Pilgrims over this question of their removal to 
America, their clear, straight view of the peril and pains 
which it would involve, and finally the considerations that 
moved them, in spite of all the tremendous difficulties they 
foresaw to make their immortal attempt. No modern de- 
3 scription of these modest and unconquerable heroes can 
equal the impression made upon us by the reserve and the 
moral sublimity of the historians words. 

As the history proceeds year by year, few things are 
omitted that a noble curiosity could desire to look into, the 
bright and the sombre side of that primal life, its inadequate 
shelter, its sickness, its weakness, its long pressure upon the 
verge of famine and assassination, its roughness, its grim toil, 
its ignoble wranglings and meannesses, its incongrous out- 
breaks of crime, its steady persistent ascent into prosperity, 
through sagacious enterprise, hard work and indomitable 
faith, its piety and its military exploits, its philanthropy, its 
acute diplomacy, its far-eyed statesmanship. As the book is 
composed in the form of annual records of experience, it has 
the privilege of stopping where it will without violating its 
own unity. The historians hand kept moving upon this task 
for twenty years, and when at last old age and public cares 



DESCRIPTION OF LYFORD. 49 



rested too heavy upon it, the work brought down to 1646, 
was finished so far as it went. Break off where it would, that 
work could not be a fragment. 



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In 1650 he wrote the closing lines of this invaluable 
work, and added that full list of Mayflower passengers. Atthe 
bottom of the last section he wrote "Anno 1647 "an entry 
which shows his intention of continuing the work, but time o 
and strength were wanting. 



The prevailing trait of its pages is of course grave ; but 
at times this sedateness is relieved by a quaint and pithy em- 
phasis of phrase that amounts almost to humor. But a writer 
like Bradford is more likely to condescend to a solemn sort 
of sarcasm than to humor, as for instance, in his dealing with 
John Lyford, the mischievous clerical imposter who, in 1624, 
found his way to Plymouth, and vexed the souls of the Pil- 
grims by the antics of his sly sensual and malignant life. 
Some lines in Bradford's sketch of this fawning swindler 
remind one of the more elaborate work of a mighty painter of 
human character in our time, having particularly an amusing 






resemblance to that great artist's portrait of Uriah Heep. 3 



> 



The historian ushers Lyford upon the stage under the ironical I H 
title of "an eminent person," and adds that when he "first 
came ashore, he saluted them with that reverence and humility 
as is seldom to be seen, and indeed made them ashamed, he 
so bowed and cringed unto them, and would have kissed their 
hands if they would have suffered him ; yea, he wept and shed 
many tears, blessing God that had brought him to see their 
faces ; and admiring the things they had done in their wants, 
and so forth as if he had been made all of love, and the 
humblest person in the world. " 

In the early, and doubtful days of the Plymouth colony, 



50 BRADFORD. 



the true men were troubled by the querulous and paltry com- 
plaints which, by some of the weaker brethren, were sent back 
or carried back to England, and which had the effect of dis- 
couraging the flow of emigration thither. Many of these com- 
plaints seemed to a man like Bradford to be too despicable 
for serious notice as thus "the people are much annoyed 
with mosquitoes." His contemptuous answer was: "They 
are too delicate and unfit to begin new plantations and colo- 
nies, that cannot endure the bitings of a mosquito. We 
would wish such to keep at home till at least they become 
mosquito-proof." 



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Governor Bradford laid down his pen in 1650. For 
nearly two hundred years little or nothing material was added 
to the annals of his time. He is the supreme authority. 

BRADFORD'S PROPERTY. 

The life Bradford so devotedly lived for others has made 
even his private affairs a matter of public interest. In the tax list 
of 1632, only two men were taxed more than Bradford when he 
was rated the same as four others. 

At the time of his death he was the richest man in 
Plymouth Colony. The amount of his property was about 
nine hundred pounds. The next in rank for wealth was Miles 
Standish, who died in 1656, and whose property was esti- 
mated at about four hundred pounds. 



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The earliest records indicate that all the land between 
Burial hill and Main street, once belonged to John Alden and 
William Bradford. The remainder of the land between 
School street and Main street belonged to Governor Bradford 
and the tradition that his house was located there has never 
been disputed by the most critical antiquarian. The letter of 



THE FARM AT KINGSTON. 



51 



De Rasiers, giving an account of his visit to Plymouth in 
1627, and a description of the town at that time places the 
house beyond the possibility of a doubt on the corner of the 
Square and Main street. He says " in the center on the cross 



street stands the governor's house." 



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He once owned the lot where Pilgrim Hall now stands, besides 
other lands in the central part of Plymouth. On December, 29, 
the day before the Pilgrims made their final decision to plant at 
Plymouth, an exploring party went three miles up Jones' River to 
what is now Kingston, and they "had a great liking to plant" 
there. It is reasonable to suppose that Bradford was one of the 
number who had a great liking for that locality ; for within a few 
years after the settlement, about 1628, we find him the possessor 
of quite a large estate there, (about 300 acres). He had a house 
there as early as 1637, resided there when Winslow was Governor 
in 1644 and as late as 1647. 



Though Governor Bradford had a house in that part of 
Plymouth which is now Kingston, which he occupied while 
he was out of office, he was undoubtedly occupying the house 
on the corner of Main street and Town square at the time of 
his death. 



■s. 



It is also remarked that he wrote no more history after 1647, 
the year he is supposed to have left his farm. 



A portion of this farm has never been sold to this day, 
but has descended by inheritance or bequest from the Pil- 
grim Governor to the present owners. In 1822 a portion, 
including the home lot, was sold to Francis Drew, who 
married into the Bradford family, and on Sept. 30, 1897, this 



u 



5 2 BRADFORD. 



lot passed from Dr. Thomas Bradford Drew to the Massa- 
chusetts Society of the Mayflower Descendants as a memorial 
to Gov. William Bradford and his son, Major William Brad- 
ford. It is situated on a slight eminence overlooking Jones' 
river with a full view of the monument to Myles Standish, 
three miles distant in an easterly direction across the water, 
while Plymouth is distinctly seen at the right, four miles 
away. At present (1898), the lot is designated by a single 
sign board bearing the following inscription : 

"This eminence is a portion of The ancient estate 
of William Bradford, the illustrious Governor of Plymouth 
Colony, where he had a house before 1637. Here his son, 
the Honourable Major William Bradford lived and died in 
the year 1704. Wamsutta, the Indian Chieftain, tarried here 
just previous to his death in 1662." 



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The opposite side of the same board is lettered "The Old 
Bradford Lot." 

While it is thought by some that Bradford occupied the 
Kingston House only during the five years when he declined the 
cares of office, it is recorded that during one of his official years 
(1643), he was there. His household was large enough so that 
he could have occupied both places at the same time, stopping in 
Plymouth as business required, and returning to his farm for rest 
when his presence in Plymouth was not necessary. 



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BRADFORD'S FAMILY. 

The fourth marriage in the colony was Governor Brad- 
ford to Mrs. Alice Southworth, widow, Aug. 14, 1623. 

She was the daughter of Alexander Carpenter. It is a 
favorite old Colony tradition that Bradford and Alice Car- 
penter were lovers in adjacent English houses, but that the 



ALICE (CARPENTER), BRADFORD. 55 



father Carpenter forbade the match on account of Bradford's 
social inferiority ; that Alice was given to the well to do 
Edward Southworth, while Bradford, going to Holland made 
a loveless match with Dorothy May, who found a sought for 
solution of her loneliness in the waters of Cape Cod Harbor, 
and that Bradford then wrote to the now widowed Alice to 
come to him. This story is groundless and absurd. 

Alexander Carpenter, the father of Alice, lived at Wring- 
ton near Bath. From Austerfield to Wrington would then 
have been an expensive, arduous journey of some weeks du- 
ration. Bradford was only seventeen when he began his 
migration to Holland which he accomplished a few months 
later. It is quite absurd to suppose without some evidence 
that previous to that early age he had been busy with amatory 
pursuits in a remote part of the country. He was at Leyden 
in 1609. The first mention of Carpenter being there is in 
1612. There is no reason whatever for supposing that Brad- 
ford ever saw the Carpenters before their arrival at Leyden. 
He was then a young man of more property and culture than 
most of his associates, and was fast becoming a leader. In 
all probability the obscure Mr. Carpenter, who is only known 
to us as the father of his daughters, would have most gladly 
welcomed an alliance with him. In the autumn of 1613 
Bradford married Dorothy May. There is nothing to indi- 
cate that they were not a thoroughly affectionate couple; and 
that the union was pleasant may be inferred from Bradford's 
semi-confidential correspondence in later years with his 
father-in-law, John May, who remained in Holland. 

Edward Southworth was early at Leyden where he mar- 
ried Alice Carpenter, May 28, 1613. The widowed Alice 
had good reasons for coming to Plymouth. Her little prop 
erty would there be a competence, and her two boys might 
expect good positions at maturity, she was of its faith, her 



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56 sradforD. 



brother Fuller was already there, and her brother and sister 

Morton, with her five nieces, and Fuller's wife were to go in 

2 the Anne ; that she accompanied them is easily accounted 

S for without reference to Bradford. Then the latter's house 

o 

g much needed a mistress ; the lady's relatives were among 

Bradford's intimate friends, and brief wooing "was quite ac- 
cording to the spirit of the times. 



> 



We have a clue to Bradford's family four years after this mar- 
riage, when the cattle division was ordered, May 22, 1627. For 
the purpose of this division the people of the Colony were divided 
into twelve lots, of thirteen persons each. It is clear that there 
was no one family, other than Bradford's that alone was large 
enough to include thirteen persons. In every case except Brad- 
ford's it was expressly stated that others were "joyned" to or with 
the person whose name stood at the head, while with Bradford the 
word "joyned "was omitted, merely adding to his name "and 
those with him," as if they were already of his family, or in some 
sense already "with him" without being added or joined thereto. 

"An heifer of the last year which was of the great White 

Back Cow that was brought over in the 'Anne'", (the same 

ship in which Mrs. Bradford came), fell to the Governor, 

> Mr. William Bradford and those with him, "to wit: his wife 

Alice Bradford, William Bradford, Mercy Bradford, Joseph 

o Rogers, Thomas Cushman, William Latham, Mannassah 

Kempton, Juliana Kempton, Nathaniel Morton, John Morton, 

Ephraim Morton, and Patience Morton." 

The Governor, his wife and the two children require no ex- 
planation. Of the others "Thomas Rogers dyed in the first sick- 
ness," and his son, Joseph Rogers, had no doubt been taken care 
of by this kind hearted and fatherly man. 



THE SOUTHWORTH BOYS. 57 

Robert Cushman's last request of Bradford. "Have a 
care of my son as of your son " was generously fulfilled, (and 



£ 



thus we find this son in the Bradford family) and so worthy § 
was the result that Thomas Cushman was chosen as Brew 
ster's immediate successor. 



William Latham came over in the Mayflower as the boy 
servant of Governor Carver and no doubt when Carver died, 
Latham too fell to Bradford's care. The Kemptons were brother 
and sister-in-law to Bradford, Mrs. Kempton being his wife's 
sister. The four Morton children were the children of Mrs. 
Kempton by her first husband, George Morton, who came to 
Plymouth in 1623, and died in 1624. Every member of the be- 
reaved family doubtless received the kind attention of Governor 
Bradford, and thenceforward Nathaniel Morton was the object of 
paternal kindness from his illustrious uncle. Although Nathaniel 
Morton's mother lived nearly as many years as Mrs. Bradford, so 
endeared was he to his loving aunt, that in the closing lines of his 
poem to her memory he calls her mother. 

"Adoe my loving friend, my aunt, my mother 
Of those that's left I have not such another." 

Some time after this cattle division, Bradford's son John, came 
over and a son Joseph was born in 1630, thus making in all, four 
Bradford children. About T628 Mrs. Bradford's two Southworth 
boys joined the Bradford family. 

They were received by Bradford as own sons and their 
advanced studies were under his care. They did him and 
their mother ample credit, becoming leading citizens. 2 

Captain Thomas Southworth, though only twenty-eight a 
when elder Brewster died was proposed as his successor ; but g 
Bradford, who had designed him for the civil service, caused 
the substitution of another of his proteges, Thomas Cush- 



58 BRADFORD. 

man. In 1654 died John Faunce, who had married South- 
worth's cousin, Patience Morton. At the head of the grave, 
during the burial, stood a pitiful group of little orphans left 
in poverty, but Lieutenant Southworth taking by the hand 
^ Thomas, a boy of eight years, led him away to adopt into his 
o family and, transmitting that which he had received from 
Gov. Bradford, gave the orphan a good education, secular 
and religious, for which Thomas Faunce, the last ruling elder 
known in Plymouth, said that he had "reason to bless God 
to all eternity." 

About 1644 another member was added to the Bradford family. 
Bradford wrote a letter to Mrs. Bradford's sister Mary in England 
(who had just buried her mother), and invited her to come to 
them, "they would be helpful to her, though they had grown old," 
and he offered to pay her passage if she needed it. Among the 
Deaths on the Plymouth Church records for March 1667 we find 
this entry : 

"Mary Carpenter, sister of Mrs. Alice Bradford, the wife of 
Gov. Bradford, being newly entered into the 91st year of her age. 
She was a Godly old maid, never married." 

Governor Bradford has not generally been credited with hav- 
ing established the first orphan Asylum in this country, but this 
review of his family shows that it contained, at least seven and 
probably ten orphans and it is doubtful if so many bereaved chil- 
dren had ever before, in America, been gathered into one band. 
His children, her children and their children were not enough for 
the generous Bradford so long as any worthy child needed a pa- 
rent's care. Of the eighteen members of his family hereinbefore 
supposed, only one-third of them bore the name of Bradford. 

It was not alone as Governor that Bradford ruled the colony. 
He was called the father of the colony, and Mrs. Bradford was the 
recognized mother. Her son Constant held many offices, both 
civil and military, and was, for sixteen years, the Colony's treas- 



HIS INVENTORY. 59 

urer. Her son Thomas was even more prominent, and among his 
many public offices he was for a long term of years Colonial Com- 
missioner, and Assistant for the Colony at large, Bradford's son 
Major William was next to Standish, a chief military man 
of the Colony. He was assistant treasurer, Colonial Com- 
missioner, Judge of Probate, besides being assistant or Deputy 
Governor for thirty-four years. Bradford's son, Joseph, was also 
a Major, and his grandson John was one of the representatives 
from Plymouth in the first General Court at Boston, after the 
union with Massachusetts. The second Ruling Elder of the 
Colony, Thomas Cushman, and the third and last Elder, Thomas 
Faunce, were of the Bradford family and training. Ephraim 
Morton was for many successive years a member of the Council of 
war, and Nathaniel Morton was Secretary of the Colony for forty 
years. It is no common thing to find so many public servants in 
one family or to find the public so largely under the influence of 
one man. 

HIS INVENTORY. 

The inventory of the estate of Gov. Bradford enables us to 
take a look into the great house where this large family lived. We 
find "Bedding and other things in ye old parler," including a green 
rugg, a wainscot bedsted and settle, a court cubbard, "awinscott 
chist and cubburd, " leather chairs, great wooden chairs, three 
matchlock muskets, a snaphance muskett, a birding piece and 
another small piece, besides a pistol and cutlass. "In the great 
Rome " are two great carved chairs, small carved chair, three 
striped carpets, thirteen cushions, a fowling piece, a pair of old 
bandeleers and many other things. Of linen there is quite an 
array including over six dozen napkins. There are eight pewter 
plates, thirteen platters', five saucers, four basons, five dishes, a 
candlestick, a salt, and a bottle, besides sixteen other pieces, making 
a total of sixty-four pieces of pewter. "In the kitchen" we find 
four venices glasses, only seven earthen dishes, and the four dozen 



60 BRADFORD. 

trenchers which served as plates. Also many brass articles includ- 
ing a brass mortar and pestal and numerous other things down to 
a "peec of old iron to lay before a dripping pan." And then we 
find " In the new chamber his clothes" the first item of which is 
"a stuffe suite with silver buttons <& a coate." Some of the 
other items are — a cloth cloak faced with taffety, "a sod coullered 
cloth suit," a turkey grogram suit and cloak, "a kid wastcoat, a 
lead coullered cloth suit with silver buttons, a light coullered 
stuffe coate, an old violett coullered cloake and an old green 
goune." Of "the plate or silver we find "one great beer bowle, 
another beer bowle, 2 wine cupps, a salt, the trencher, salt and a 
drame cup and 13 silver spoones." "In the studdie" are fourteen 
pairs of shoes and various kinds of cloth, " linnin-woolcey, 
moheer, penistone, broadcloth, carsye, kid plaine, kash and hol- 
land," amounting in all to one hundred and thirteen yards. Then 
there are "his books" too numerous to mention, "his desk" and 
several "chists." No doubt there were other rooms in the house 
which the appraisers did not name, and we cannot vouch for all of 
the things having been found in the rooms indicated, for they 
have recorded the various live stock, and even his lands, under the 
head of "In the studdie." 

BRADFORD RELICS. 
We wonder what has become of these various things and can- 
not help but covet them. We even go so far as to select the par- 
ticular things that we would like, and yet, we would be contented 
with only just one of those silver buttons. But few of these relics 
are now known to exist. Among the relics of the Plymouth 
church on exhibition in Pilgrim Hall is a book written by Rev. 
John Robinson, published in 16 10, and presented by Robinson to 
William Bradford. 

Governor Bradford's antique arm chair was used by the 
2 presiding officer of the Old Colony Club, established at 



HIS DEATH AND BURIAL. 6l 



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Plymouth, 1769. It reverted to the heirs of Dr. L. Lee 
Baron on the dissolution of the club, and is now preserved by 
the family of N. Russell, Esq., of Plymouth. S 

Mr. Joseph Belcher Waters of Salem, Mass., has his 
Bible printed 1592. It is in Old English Letters; the covers j< 
and margins are worn down to the reading. It has a family % 
record from the Governor's birth in 1690, Mr. Waters being 
in the seventh generation. 

Through these six generations the Holy Book has de- 
scended with the loss of only a few of the first and last leaves, " 
but the boards of the cover are gone, the margins worn down o 
almost to the text, and the leather of the back rolled up. 

BRADFORD'S DEATH AND BURIAL. 

Governor Bradford last presided in Gourt Feb. 13, 1657. 
On March 15th, he was absent from illness and Collier took the 
chair. 

Yet he felt himself not what he counted sick, till May 
7th, the night after which the God of heaven so filled his 
mind with ineffable consolations that he seemed little short 
of Paul, rapt up unto the unutterable entertainments of Para- £ 
dise. The next morning he told his friends that the good = 
spirit of God had given him a pledge of his happiness in i 
another world and the first fruits of his eternal glory ; and on 
the day following he died, May 9, 1657, in the sixty-ninth 
year of his age. 



This worthy gentleman was interred with the greatest 
solemnities that the jurisdiction to which he belonged was in 
a capacity to perform, many deep sighs, as well as loud 



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62 BRADFORD. 



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volleys of shot declaring that the people were no less sensible 
of their own loss, who were surviving than mindful of the 
worth and honor of him that was deceased. You might now 
easily discern a heavy heart in the mournful countenance of 
every sober minded and considerate man. 

It was no common procession that bore the dead leader up 
that sharp ascent to Burial hill. The whole community stood 
sadly and reverently by, while the grave was filled. The train 
band fired over the spot the volleys due to a chief magistrate, 
but according to Colonial usage there were no other ceremonies. 
Yet the mourning was profound throughout the United Colo- 
nies of New England, for he was everywhere regarded "as a 
common blessing and father to them all." 

His last resting place was happily selected. It is on the 
brow of the hill looking down on that spot where, from the 
early days, was his happy home. All along, just below it, 
lies the town of which he was in such large part the founder 
and guardian ; farther out lies the harbor, with its islands and 
headlands including that monumental hill where lived the 
great comrade Standish, and in clear weather, across the 
sparkling bay appears Cape Cod where his young wife 
Dorothy, found a watery grave before Plymouth had been 
reached. It is a beautiful and grand panorama, which offers 
to the eye not a few of the most interesting land marks of 
Pilgrim history. 

Bradford is the only one of the Mayflower Pilgrims whose 
resting place is definitely known. Although no stone was origi- 
nally erected to his memory, his burial place is identified by that 
of his son William, who died in 1703. Ebenezer Cobb was then 
nine years of age, and has from time to time made the statement 
that Major William, by his own special request, was buried by the 





PUB 







MRS. ALICE BRADFORD. 65 

side of his father the Governor, and thus the stone of Major 
William shows his father's resting place over which a monument 
has since been erected. 

It is but a modest, and inconspicuous shaft, with which some 
of his descendants have marked the spot and nothing more is 
needed, for, ever foremost in the hearts and memory of those who 
love our Pilgrim Fathers, will be the man Bradford, the prop and 
glory of Plymouth Colony, a common blessing and father to all the 
colonies of New England, the father of American history, and the 
progenitor of more than fifty thousand American people. 

Our illustration shows the south side of his monument. The 

east and west sides have no inscription. On the north side there 

is a Hebrew sentence of one line variously translated to signify 

"Jehova is our help" and "In Jehova's name I die." Then 

follows : 

Under this stone 

rest the ashes of 

WILL M. BRADFORD, 

a zealous puritan &: 

sincere christian 

Gov. of Ply. Col. From 

April 1621, to 1657, 

the year he died 

aged 69. 

except 5 yrs, which he declined. 

Then there is a Latin sentence in three lines, the same having 
been translated, as "Do not basely relinquish what the Fathers 
with difficulty attained." 

MRS. ALICE BRADFORD. 

Mrs. Bradford according to tradition brought a fair § 
property from England. She is said to have labored dilli- q 
gently for the improvement of the young women of Plymouth g 



66 BRADFORD. 



and to have been eminently worthy of her high position. By 

her first husband she is said to be the ancestress of all the 

Southworths in this country. It has been inferred that her 

labors were in the direction of literary education ; but such 

. training was not then the rule among women below the 

S gentry. Mrs. Bradford, like many genuine ladies of her time, 

o ! could not write her name, and attached her mark to several in- 

§ j struments. After along debility she died, Aprils, 1670 (N. S.), 

aged about eighty. She asked in her will to be laid "as near 

to her husband as may conveniently be" and on the third 

day after her death her body was born to the spot with 

special ceremony. 



a "On the 26th day of March, 1670, misstres Alice Brad- 

g ford Senr. changed this life for a better, having attained to 

« four score years of age or there about. She was a godly 

j5 i Matron, and much loved while she lived and lamented tho 

o aged when she died and was honorably interred on the 29th 

* i day of the month aforesaid att New Plymouth." 



The inventory of her estate amounted to ^162, 17s. and in 
her will she made a small bequest to her servant Mary Smith. 

BRADFORD'S WILL. 
The nuncupative will of Governor Bradford is recorded at 
Plymouth, upon the testimony of three of his family orphans, as 
follows : 

> 



"The last will and testament, nuckupative, of Mr. William 
Bradford senr., deceased May the 9th, 1657 and exhibited in 
w Court held at Plymouth June 3d, 1657. 

Mr. William Bradford Senr. being weake in body, but in 
ppct memory having deferred the forming of his will in 



Bradford's will. 67 



hopes of having the healp of Mr. Thomas Prence therein, 
feeling himself very weake and drawing on to the conclusion 
of his mortal life spake as followeth. I could have desired 
abler men then myself in the disposing of that I have, how 
my estate (is), none knowes better than yourself said he to 
Leiftenant Southworth. I have desposed to John and William 
already theire proportions of land which they are possesed of. 
My will is that what I stand engaged to p, forme to my chil- 
dren and others bee made good out of my estate, that my 
name suffer not. Further my will is that my dear and loving 
wife Alice Bradford shall bee the sole Exequitrix of my estate, 
and for her future main tainance my will is that my Stocke 
in the Kennebecke trad bee reserved for her comfortable sub- 
sistence as farr as it will extend, and soe further in any such 
way as may be judged best for ner. I further request and 
appoint my wel beloved Christian ffreinds Mr. Thomas 
Prence, Captain Thomas Willet and Lieftenant Thomas 
Southworth to be the supervisors of the desposing of my es- 
tate according to the p,mises confiding much in theire faith 
fullness. I comend to your wisdome some small bookes 
written by my owne hand to bee improved as you shall see 
meet. In speciall I comend to you a little book with a black 
cover, wherein there is a word to Plymouth and a word to 
Boston and a word to New England with sundry useful verses. 
These p'tculars were expressed by the said William Bradford 
Govr. the 9th day of May, 1657 in the p, sence of us, 



THOMAS CUSHMAN, 
THOMAS SOUTHWORTH, 
NATHANIEL MORTON. 

The inventory of his estate is as follows : 



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68 BRADFORD. 



INVENTORY. 

A trew Inventory of the Estate of Mr. William Bradford 
Senir. lately deceased taken and appraised by us whose names 
are underwritten, the 2 2eond of May 1657, and exhibited to 
the court holden att Plymouth the 3d. of June 1657 on the 
oath of Mrs. Alice Bradford. 

Beding and other things in ye old parlor, 

Impr. one feather bed and bolster, 

It. a feather bed a feather bolster a feather pillow, 

It. a canvas bed with feathers and a bolster and 2 pillows, 

It. one green rugg. 

It. a paire of whit blanketts, 

It. one whit blankett, 

It. 2 pairs of old blanketts, 

It. 2 old coverlidds, 

It. 1 old white rugg and an old kid coverlidd, 

It. 1 paire of old curtaines darnickes & and an old 

paire of sach curtaines, 

It. a court cubbard, 

It. a winescot bedsteed and a settle, 

It. 4 lether chaires, 

It. 1 great lether chaire, 

It. 2 great wooden chaires, 

It. a table & forme and 2 stooles, 

It. a winscott chist & cubburd, 

It. a case with six knives, 

It. 3 matchlock musketts, 

It. a snaphance muskett, 

It. a birding peece and an other smale peece, 

It. a pistoll and cutlas, 

It. a card and a platt, 

In the great Rome. 

It. 2 great carved chaires, 

It. a smale carved chaire, 

It. a table and forme, 

It. 3 striped carpetts, 

It. 10 cushens, 



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3- 


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00. 


00 


3- 


00. 


00 


1. 


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1 


00. 


00 


1. 


00. 


00 




12. 


00 


1. 


00. 


00 


1. 


00. 


00 


1. 


00. 


00 




J 5- 


00 


1. 


5- 


00 


1. 


10. 


00 


1. 


12. 


00 




10. 


00 




8. 


00 


1. 


5- 


00 


1. 


5- 


00 




5- 


00 


2. 


2. 


00 


1. 


00. 


00 




18. 


00 




12. 


00 




5- 


00 


1. 


4- 


00 




6. 


00 


1 . 


2. 


00 


1. 


5- 


00 


1. 


1. 


QO 



INVENTORY. 69 



£. s. d. 

It. 3 old cushens, 2. 03 

It. a causlett and one head peece, 1. 10. 00 

It. 1 fouling peece without a locke 3 old barrells of 

guns one paire of old bandeleers and a crest, 16. 00 

Linnin. 

It. 2 paire of holland sheets, 2. 00. 00 

It. 1 dowlis sheet, 10. 00 

It. 2 paire of cotton and linnen sheets, 1. 15. 00 

It. 2 paire of hemp and cotten sheets, 1. 15. 00 

It. 2 paire of canvas sheets, 1. 10. 00 

It. 2 paire of old sheets, 15. 00 

It. 4 fine shirts, 2. 00. 00 

It. 4 other shirts, 1. 00. 00 

It. a dozen of cotten and linnin napkins, 12. 00 

It. a dozen of canvas napkins, 6. 00 

It. a diaper tablecloth and a dozen of diaper napkins, 2. 10. 00 

It. 10 diaper napkins of another sort a diaper table- 
cloth, 

It. 2 holland tableclothes, 

It. 2 short tableclothes, 

It. 2 old tableclothes, 

It. a dozen of old napkins, 

It. halfe a dozen of napkins, 

It. 3 old napkins, 

It. a dozen of course napkins & a coui-se tablecloth, 

It. 2 fine holland cubburd clothes, 

It. 3 paire of holland pillow beers, 

It. 3 paire of dowlis pillow beers and an old one, 

It. 4 holland towells and a lockorumone, 



3- 


00. 


00 


1 


00. 


00 




10. 


00 




5- 


00 




8. 


00 




8. 


00 




2. 


00 




6. 


00 




12. 


00 




18. 


00 




14. 


OO 




5- 


OO 



pewter. 

It. 14 pewter dishes wejing 47 pound att I5d p pound, 2. 18. 09 
It. 6 pewter plates & 13 pewter platters wejing thirty 

2 pounds att i5d p pound, 2. 00. 00 
It. 2 pewter plates 5 sawsers 4 basons and 5 dishes 

wejing eighteen pounds att I5d p pound, 1. 2. 06 

It. 2 ppeplates of pewter, 3. 04 

It. 3 chamber potts, 9. 00 

It. 7 porrengers, 3. 06 



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BRADFORD. 



It. 2 quart potts & a pint pott, 7- °° 

It. 2 old fflagons an a yore, (?) 9* °° 
It. a pewter candlesticke a salt and a little pewter 

bottle, 3- °o 

It. 4 venice glasses and seaven earthen dishes, io. oo 

It. 2 ffrench kittles, *• IO - °° 
In the kitchen brasse. 

It. i brasse kittle, J 5- °° 

It. 2 little ffrench kittles, 6. oo 

It. an old warming pan, 5- °° 

It. 2 old brasse kittles, 2 - °° 

It. a dash pan, 4- °° 

It. 3 brasse skilletts, 4- °° 

It. 3 brasse candle stickes and a brasse morter and 

pestle, 7- °° 

a It. an old brasse skimmer and a ladle, i. oo 



It. a paire of andirons, °- °° 



cu 



It. an old brasse stewpan, o. oo 

It. 2 old brasse kittles, 5- °° 

f- 1 It. 2 iron skilletts and an iron kittle, 15- °° 

| 2 old (?) iron pottes, i- oo. co 

> It. 2 iron potts lesser, 7- °° 

It. 2 paire of pot hangers 2 paire of pot hookes, 6. oo 

It. 2 paire of tongges and an old fier shouvel, 3- 04 

It. one paire of andirons and a gridiron, 5- 00 

It. a spitt and an old iron driping pan, 5- 00 

It. a paire of iron rackes and an iron peele and another 

peec of old iron to lay before a driping pan 10. 00 

It. 4 dozen of trenchers, -■ °° 

It. 2 juggs and 3 smale bottles. 2. 00 
In the new chamber his clothes. 

It. a stuffe suite with silver buttons & a coate, 4. 00. 00 

It. a cloth cloake faced with taffety lineed threw with 

baies, 3- IO - °° 

It. a sod coullered cloth suite, 2. 00. 00 

It a turkey Grogorum [Grogram] suite and cloake, 2. 00. 00 

It. a paire of blacke britches and a kid wastcoat, 15. 00 

It. a lead coullered cloth suit with silver buttons, 2. 00. 00 



INVENTORY. 



7* 



It. a sod coullered short coate and an old serge suite. 

It, a blacke cloth coate, 

It. a broad cloth coate, 

It. a light coullered stuffe coate, 

It an old green goune, 

It. a light collered cloth cloake, 

It. an old violett coullered cloake 

It. a short coate of cloth, 

It. 2 old dublett and a paire of briches a short coate 

and an old stuffe dublit and wastcoate, 

It. 2 paire of stockens, 

It. 2 hates a blacke one and a coullered one, 

It. 2 old hatts, 

It. i great chaire and 2 woought stooles, 

It. a carved chist, 

It. a table, 

the plate 

It. one great beer bowle, 

It. another beer bowle, 

It. 2 wine cupps, 

It. a salt, 

It. the trencher salt and a drame cup, 

It. 4 silver spoones, 

It. 9 silver spoones, 

In the studdie 

It. eight paire of shooes of the 12s, 

It. 6 paire of shoes of the ios, 

It. one paire of the eights, 

It. 3 paire of the 7s, 

It. 2 pairs of the sixes, 

It. 1 paire of the 5s 1 paire of the 4s 1 paire of the 3s, 

It. 4 yards and an halfe of linnin woolcye, 

It. 3 remnants of English cotten, 

It. 3 yards and an halfe of bayes, 

It. 17 yards of course English moheer, 

It. 4 yards and 3 quarters of purpetuanna, 

It. 18 yards of kid penistone, 

5 yards of broadcloth, 

It. 2 yards of broadcloth, 



£. 


s. 


d. 




1. 


10. 


00 






15- 


00 




1. 


5- 


00 






16. 


00 




1. 


00. 


00 




1. 


J 5- 


00 




1. 


5- 


00 






to. 


00 




1. 


00. 


00 






7- 


00 




1. 


10. 


00 






16. 


00 




1. 


00. 


00 




1. 


00. 


00 




3- 

2. 


!5- 

00. 
00. 


00 

00 
00 


Q 

a 


Of 


2. 


00. 


00 


s 


3- 


00. 


00 


O 


1. 


i5- 

4- 


00 
00 


s 

Oh 


2. 


5- 


00 




2. 


00. 


00 




1. 


4- 


00 






3 


04 






9- 


00 






2. 


08 






6. 


00 






J 3- 


06 






16. 


03 






7- 


00 




2. 


2. 


06 




1. 


00. 


00 




3- 


3- 


00 




3- 


IS- 


00 




1. 


10. 


00 





72 



P.RADFORD. 



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It. 2)^ yards and an halfe of olive cullered carsye, 

It. a yard and a halfe of whitish carsey, 

It. 4 yards of Gray carsye, 

It. 5 yards and an halfe of kid carsye, 

It. 4 yards and a quarter of carsey ollive coullered, 

It. 7 yards of carsye sod cullered, 

It. io yards of gray carsye, 

It. 6 yards and an halfe of kid plaine, 

It. 9 yards and an halfe of kash, 

It. 6 yards of holland, 

It. a remnent of cushening, 

It. 7 smale moose skines, 

It. in cash, 

It. his deske, 

It. 2 caskes with some emty bottles, 

It. 3 or 4 old cases, 

his bookes in folio 

It. Perkines workes, 

It. 3 of docter Willetts workes viz on genesis exedus 
and daniell, 

It. the ffrench acaddamey, 

It. the Guictardian, (?) 

It. the history of the church, 

It. bodins comons wealth, 

It. B. Bablingtons workes, 

It. Peter martine comon places. 

It. Cartwright on the remish testament, 

It. the history of the Netherlands, 

It. Peter Martine on the Romans, 

It. Mayors workes on the New testament, 

It. Cottens concordance, 

Speeds general description of the world, 
Weames christian sinnagogue and the portrature 
of the image of god in man, 

It. Luther on the gallations, 

It. the method of phissicke, 

It. Cahins harmony and Cahins comentary on the 
actes, 

It. dounhams 2 cond pte of Christian warfare, 





15- 


00 




7- 


00 


I. 


4- 


00 


I. 


7- 


06 


I. 


IO. 


00 


2. 


6. 


08 


2. 


IO. 


00 


I. 


19. 


00 


3- 


16. 


00 


i. 


8. 


00 




9- 


00 


4- 


8. 


00 


5i- 


9- 


06 




5- 


00 




10. 


00 




3- 


00 



1. IO. 00 



[. 00. 


00 


8. 


00 


10. 


00 


8. 


00 


6. 


00 


8. 


00 


i5- 


00 


10. 


00 


iS- 


00 


3- 


00 


. 00. 


00 


S. 


00 


. 10. 


00 


8. 


00 


2. 


00 


2. 


00 


8. 


00 


3- 


00 



INVENTORY. 73 



£. 

It. Mr Cottens answare to Mr Willam, 

It. Tajlers libertie of phrophecye, 

It. Gouges domesticall dutyes, 

It. justification of seperation or reasons descused & 

observations devine and morall the synode att 

dort the appollogjs, 
It. Mr Ainsworths workes the counterpoison the 

triang out of the truth, 
It. Mr Ainsworth on genisis, exedus and livitticus, 
It. Calvin on genises, 
It. dike on the deceitfulness of mans hart, 
It Gifford refuted, 

It. doe on the commandements & another of his, 
It. three and fifty smale bookes, i, 

It. Cahine on the epistles in duch with divers other 

duch bookes, 15. 00 j" 

It. 2 bibles, . 1. 00. 00 g 

It. a paire of boots, 5 00 £j 

It. in lether, 18. 00 * 



It. 2oldchists, 10. 00 h 

It. 6 old barrells a bucking tubb a brewing tubb other q 

old lumber, 1. 

It. a pcell of cotten woole & a pcell of sheepes woole, 2. 

It. a pcell of feathers, 

It. 3 ewe sheep, 4. 

It. 3 middleing sheep and a poor one, 4. 

It. a rame lambe and an halfe & a half an ewe lamb 

It. the old mare, 12. 

It. a lame mare and an horse coult, 14. 

It - a horse of two yeare old and advantate, 7. 

It. another horse coult of yeare and advantage, 5. 

It. 4 bullockes, 20. 

It. 7 cowes, 28. 

It. a bull, 4. 

It. 2 young bulles of two year old, 4. 

It. a heifer of three yeare old not with calfe, 3. 

It. 2 heifers of two years old, 5. 

It. 4 yearlings, 6. 

It. five calves, 3. 



s. 


d. 


2. 


00 


I. 


06 


2. 


06 


6. 


00 


2. 


00 


4- 


00 


2. 


06 


1. 


06 




06 


3- 


00 


6. 


06 


IS- 


00 


00. 


00 


5 


00 


18. 


00 


10. 


00 


00. 


00 


10. 


00 


12. 


00 


10. 


00 


00. 


00 


16. 


06 


00. 


00 


00. 


00 


00. 


00 


10. 


00 


00. 


00 


00. 


00 


00. 


00 


10. 


00 


5- 


00 


00. 


00 


00. 


00 


00. 


00 



2. 


15- 


oo 


I. 


4- 


oo 


I. 


IO. 


oo 


5- 


oo. 


oo 




16. 


oo 


V 


oo. 


oo 



74 BRADFORD. 



It. a sow and 2 hoggs, 
.It. 2 shoats, 
It. five smale shoates, 
It. the house and orchyard and some smale pcells of 

land about the towne of Plymouth, 
It. 2 spinning wheeles and a wether, 

At the Westward in debts upon the duch account 
consisting in divers pcells 153 

Item debts owing to the estate. 

It. the Kenebeck stock consisting in goods and debts 

both English and Indians, 

More debts owing in the bay, 

It. in douce the shoomakers hands, 

q It. in Mannasah Kemptons hands, 

o It. more belonging to the estate in divers pticulars, 

u 

^ Debts owing from the estate 

x It. to Mr Davis and Mr Sheffe, 

H 

D It. to Samuell Stirtivant, 

g It. 2 the townes land, 

_i It. John Jourdaine about, 

It. to goodman Clarke about, 

It. two goodman Nelson for killing of cattle Si for 

veale, 
It. to William Palmer, 
It. to the church of Plymouth, 

Som pcells of land not mencioned above belonging to Mr. William 
Bradford, Senr. 

It. one pcell att Eastham and another att Bridgewater. 
It. a smale pcell about Sautuckett and his purchase land att 
Coaksett with his right in the townes land att Punckatessett. 

By us 

THOMAS CUSHMAN, 
JOHN DUNHAM. 

It. Sundry implements forgotten belonging to the teame. 



256 


00. 


00 


5- 


00. 


00 


5- 


00. 


00 


57- 


00. 


00 


5- 


00. 


00 


2. 


3- 


00 


1. 


12. 


00 


2. 


00. 


00 


3- 


10. 


00 




18. 


06 


12. 


4- 


00 


5- 


10. 


00 



HERALDRY. 75 

SEAL AND ARMS. 

We here add a copy of Governor Bradford's autograph to- 
gether with his seal. 



)4 Mia.nL J) radC/onJc 60 



{fouz. 




It was taken from an original letter of Gov. Bradford's written 
in his own clear and beautiful hand, and signed by himself and 
other worthies, the same being a public communication from the 
Government of Plymouth. 

"To or Worp good friends mr Winthrop Gover of the Massa- 
chusetts & the rest of the consell ther," in the year 163 1. 

A printed copy of said letter may be seen in the New England 
Historical and Genealogical Register, Vol. 2, page 240. 



The impression of the seal was in wax and although so 
much defaced as to be made out with some difficulty, we 
have no doubt that it was originally intended to represent a 
double eagle. Our copy has the rare blemish of being too 
well executed. 



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We also give an illustration of Bradford arms and crest, on 
the following page, which is substantially the same as given by 
Fessenden. 



7 6 



BRADFORD. 



Our illustration of the arms corresponds with Burke's Ency- 
clopedia of Heraldry for Bradford of Yorkshire and Wiltshire, 

viz. Ar. on a fesse sa. 
three stag heads erased or. 
but Burke and Fairbairns 
both assign this crest only 
to the Bradfords of Wilt- 
shire. 

There is a copy of Brad- 
ford arms and crest in Pil- 
grim Hall, Plymouth, Mass., 
bearing the following legend: 

"Photographed from 
Gov. Bradford's Coat of 
Arms, worked by his great 
grand daughter, Lydia Brad- 
ford, and now (1882), in 
possession of Mrs. James 
Humphrey of Brooklyn, N. 
Y., a descendant of Gov. 
Bradford." 

In Vermont's American Heraldry we find the same arms 
and crest together with this statement : 

"We understand that the arms of William Bradford are 
found in the little church of Austerfield, County York." 

If this were true it seems strange that Hunter or some 
other reliable authority on Austerfield history has not men- 
tioned the same. We may also note that the Bradford's of 
Austerfield were yeomen, and hence under English heraldry 
were not entitled to the use of arms, although coming next to 
the gentry who have the right to bear arms. 




HIS CHILDREN. 7 7 

CHILDREN. 

The children of Governor Bradford were. 
By the first wife. 

i. John, born in Leyden before the emigration, was probably 
left there in the care of his grand father John May; came to 
America after the cattle division of 1627, was of Duxbury in 1645 
and in 1652 was deputy to the General Court and a Lieutenant. 
The next year he is noted as of Marshfield, which he also repre- 
sented in 1653. He m. Martha dau. of Thomas and Martha 
Bourne of Marshfield and in 1653 removed to Norwich, Conn, 
where he died childless 1678, and his 'widow married Thomas 
Tracy in 1679. 

By second wife. 

2. WILLIAM, born June 17, 1624 m. 1st. ALICE dau. of 
Thomas and Welthean Richards of Weymouth, who died Dec. 12, 
1 67 1 age 44. 2nd. the widow of Pastor Wiswall of Duxbury and 3rd. 
Mary widow of John Holmes of Duxbury and dau. of John 
Atwood. Major William Bradford died March 1, 1704, (N. S.) 
aged 80. 

3. Mercy, born before 1627, m. Benjamin Vermayes Dec. 
21, 1648. His name may be found among those who took the 
freeman's oath at Boston May 18, 1642. He afterwards lived at 
Plymouth on what was called North street but attained no promi- 
nence. 

4. Joseph, born 1630 m. Jael, dau. of the famous Hingham 
pastor Rev. Peter Hobart, May 25, 1664. She died in 1730 aged 
88. He lived in Kingston, (then Plymouth), on Jones' River, 
half a mile from its mouth near the ledge of rocks through which 
the railroad now (1896), passes at a place called "Flat House 
Dock," perhaps from the circumstance that he lived in a house 



78 BRADFORD. 

with a flat roof. He died at Rocky Nook July 20, 17 15 leaving 
two sons, one of whom had thirteen children and named one son 
" Carpenter Bradford." 

Mrs. Bradford's children by her first husband, Edward South- 
worth were. 

1. Constant, born in Leyden and was about fourteen years 
old when he came over in 1628. Settled at Duxbury, was a vol- 
unteer in Pequod war, 1637 and same year m. Elizabeth daughter 
of William Collier. Had five daughters -and three son. He was 
for seventeen years deputy from Duxbury and for sixteen years 
was the Colony's treasurer. Was commissary in King Philip's 
war although then sixty-one year old. He died in 1679 aged 
about 65. 

2. Captain Thomas, about two years younger than Con- 
stant. He was deputy from Plymouth 1651, the next year be- 
came an assistant and continued so for eighteen years; was also 
deputy from Plymouth and at the same time an assistant for 
the county at large. He was also a prominent military man. He 
m. an Elizabeth Raynor and died Nov. 28, 1669, leaving but one 
child, Elizabeth. 

MAJOR WILLIAM BRADFORD 
was born at Plymouth, Mass. June 17, 1624; became one of the 
most important men of the Colony. He married about 1651-2, 
Alice, daughter of Thomas and Welthean Richards of Weymouth, 
she born 1627, and by her had ten children, four boys and six 
girls. She died at what is now Kingston, Mass. her death 
being recorded as follows : 

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On the 12th. day of december 1671 Mistress Alice 
Bradford Junr. changed this life for a better about the age of 
44 years. She was a gratious woman, lived much desired, 
died much lamented and was burried the 14 day of the month 
afore said att Plymouth above said. 



MAJOR WILLIAM. 79 

After Goodwin's notice of the funeral of Mrs. Alice Bradford 
Sen. wife of the Governor he says "the year next after the funeral 
of this distinguished matron another Mrs. Alice Bradford was 
added to the family group on Burial Hill. She was Alice Richards, 
wife of William Bradford, Jr., and the mother of a fifth William 
Bradford." (In the lineage of her children there are three suc- 
cessive pairs of William and Alice Bradford.) 

Major William Bradford married 2nd, a widow Wiswall, who 
was perhaps a daughter of Thomas Fitch of Norwalk. Goodwin 
says she was the widow of Parson Wiswall of Duxbury, Mass. By 
her Mr. Bradford had but one child, Joseph, born 1674. 

Major Bradford married 3rd. Mary Atwood, widow of John 
Holmes, pastor of Duxbury and a daughter of John Wood, alias 
Atwood, of Plymouth. By her Mr. Bradford had four sons. 

Major William lived at Jones' River, now Kingston, in the 
same place and in the same house where his father, the Governor, 
lived 1627-1647, on the lot before referred to as having passed 
recently into the possession of the Mass. Society of Mayflower 
Descendants. 

Here he reared his large family of 15 children, from 
whom thousands, bearing countless family names have </j 
descended during the two centuries that have elapsed since < 
the younger sons were born. 

In 1656-7 William Bradford Jr. was deputy from Ply- 
mouth: in 1658 he became assistant in which office he served 
for twenty four successive years and for the remaining ten 
years of the Colony's existence filled the new office of Deputy 
Governor save three years of Andros' tyrrany, though even 
then he was in nominal Council of New England. For 
twelve years he was Colonial Commissioner, now by direct 
election and now by substitution. In 1 695-1 702 or longer 
he was Judge of Probate. His entrance into the board of 



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8o BRADFORD. 



assistants is not pleasant to contemplate for he was placed 
there as the representative of that new school of illiberality 
g i which was then proscribing Hatherly and Cudworth, Skiff 
and Robinson for their opposition to the proceedings against 
the Quakers. Bradford was a high minded gentleman by 
nature, but unlike his sire he was less a man of genius than 
a follower of precedent and usage. 



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He was next to Standish a chief military man of the 
Colony. In Philip's War he was commander-in-chief of the 
Plymouth forces, had charge of the troops at Taunton and 
often exposed himself to all of the perils of war. At the 
Naraganset Fort Fight he received a musket ball in the flesh 
which he carried the remainder of his life. In that desperate 
mid winter encounter where both parties fought for their 
very existence nearly a thousand Indians fell a sacrifice and 
about one hundred and fifty of the English were killed or 
wounded. 

In the year 1662, when Alexander (Wamsutta, ) the successor 
of Massasoit was suspected of designs against the English, Major 
Bradford was with Major Winslow when the chieftain was sur- 
prised and taken prisoner. He was released by the magistrates 
to go home but was taken sick and tarried for a while at Major 
Bradford's house from whence he was carried on the shoulders of 
his men and died a few days later. 

In 1679 the office of moderator having been established 
by the town itself, William Bradford was requested by a 
vote of the town to preside at all the meetings, which was 
confirmed and renewed with no further reference to the office 
until 1 71 7 when another person was chosen. 



< 

Q 



Bradford was first made Captain and in the war with the 
Indians he held the rank of Major. He was assistant Treasurer 



major Bradford's will. 83 

and in 1691 he was one of the Council of Massachusetts. He had 
of course received from his father a good education. He was not 
only very careful as to the preservation of his father's Latin books 
but bequeathed all of his Latin books to his son Samuel to be 
given to his son who should be "brought up to learning." He 
lived at the Jones' River parish and died March 1, 1704, (N. S. ) 
aged eighty. 



He had requested to be laid beside his father, but for a 
wonder the Plymouth road was impassable from snow. The 
funeral procession therefore followed the shore of the harbor 
for two and a half miles so that the dead veteran entered the 
village close by the Rock on which his father originally 
landed. 



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o 
o 



A slab of blue slate, now in good condition and protected by 
an iron hood stands over his grave on Burial Hill. Our illustra- 
tion is of the original stone the surface of which has scaled off and 
is recut in lower case letters, with a few minor changes in spelling. 

MAJOR BRADFORD'S WILL. 

His will is recorded on the Plymouth Probate Records 
Vol. 2. page 40. as follows: 

The last will and Testament of William Bradford living 
in the township of Plymouth in the Province of Massachusetts 
Bay in New England. £ 

I, the said William Bradford, being exercised with many % 
bodily infirmities which give me cause to think the time of 
my dissolution to be near, being of a disposing mind and 
memory, do make ordain and constitute this my last will and 
testament as followeth: 



84 BRADFORD. 



i. Item: I commit my soul to God my Creator and 
my body to the dust of the earth to be decently buried in 
hopes of a glorious resurrection through the merits of my 
dear Redeemer, the Lord Jesus Christ. As to what outward 
estate it has pleased God to bless me with, I dispose of the 
same as followeth : My debts being first faithfully, fully and 
truly satisfied and paid, my will is that my loving wife Mary 
Bradford have her thirds in my lands and meadows where I 
now dwell in the township of Plymouth as also in all my lands 
and meadows which I have elsewhere not by me heretofore 
disposed of during her natural life and that she have with 
David Bradford, my son, the house in which I live, with the 
barn and orchard by it during her life and after her decease 
that my said son, David Bradford shall have my said house 
barn and orchard to him and his heirs forever saving that my 
will is that my sons Ephraim and Hezekiah Bradford shall 
have so much interest in my said house as to have liberty to 
dwell therein till they can provide for themselves otherwise. 

2. Item: To my eldest son John Bradford, I have 
made over tracts of land and meadow as by deed under my 
hand and seal appeareth whereon he now dwelleth, further, I 
give and bequeath to him my father's manuscript viz. A 
Narrative of the beginning of New Plimouth, Pareus upon 
the Revelation and Banff's Military discipline. 

3. Item: To my grandson William Bradford, son of 
my son William Bradford, deceased, I have given tracts of 
land and meadow as appear under my hand and seal, further 
I give him when he shall come of age, one of Mr. Perkins his 
works. 

4. Item: To my son Thomas Bradford I have given a 
portion in lands in Norwich, (which were the lands of my 
brother John Bradford) as per deed under my hand and seal 
as may appear. 



Q 



major Bradford's will. 85 



5. Item: To my son Samuel Bradford I have given 
tracts of land under my hand and seal as may appear. 

6. Item: To my son Joseph Bradford a portion of 
lands near Norwich aforesaid (which was his mother's and 
part I purchased) as may appear under my hand and seal, 
also I give to him the history of the Netherlands and a 
Rapier. 

7. Item: I give and bequeath unto my four sons John 
Bradford, Thomas Bradford, Samuel Bradford, and Joseph 
Bradford all that my part and right which I have to the head 
of Cape Cod. 

8. Item: I give and bequeath to my son Samuel Brad- 
ford my right of commonage or common right which I have 
in the Township of Duxbury. 

9. Item: It is my will that my sons Israel Bradford 
Ephraim Bradford, David Bradford and Hezekiah Bradford 
shall have all that my farm or tenement whereon I now dwell, 
together with all the fences, orchards, trees and fruit trees 
(except what is above excepted) standing or growing thereon, 
with all the other lands, meadows, swamps or right of lands 
that I now have within the township of Plymouth lying on the 
northerly side of the brook commonly called Stony Brook with 
all and singular the priveleges thereof, which said land, mead- 
ows, farm or tenement above said I do by these presents 
give bequeath and devise to my said four sons (that is to say 
each of them an equal part or proportion) to whom and their 
heirs forever not to be sold, given or made away either the 
whole or in part thereof except to each other or some bear- 
ing the name of Bradford descended from me. This I give 
and bequeath to them hoping they will show themselves very 
careful of, dutiful and respectful to my loving wife their mother 
during her life. 



02 

Q 



- 



86 BRADFORD. 



10. Item: It is my will that whereas my son Israel 
Bradford has been at charge in building an house upon part 
of the farm or tenement above — said that he, the said Israel 
shall have and enjoy the said house for his own, together 
with an acre of land thereunto adjoining, to him and his heirs 
forever. 

ir. Item: I will and bequeath to my said son Israel, 
my belt and Rapier. 

12. Item: I give to my son Ephraim Bradford one of 
my musquetts and a table with drawers. 

13. Item: I give to my son David Bradford my silver 
bowl after his mother's decease not to be alienated from the 
family of the Bradfords. 

14. Item: I give to my son Hezekiah Bradford my 
gold ring and a silver spoon. 

15. Item: I give to my grandson William Bradford 
the son of John Bradford my silver wine cup when he comes 
of age. 

16. Item: I give to my daughters, Mercy Steel, 
Hannah Ripley, Miletiah Steel, Mary Hunt to each of them 
besides what portion I have already given 10 shillings apiece 
to be paid within a year next after my decease. 

17. Item: I give and bequeath to my daughter Alice 
Fitch a wrought cushion that was her mother's. 

18. Item: I give unto my daughter Sarah Baker two of 
my biggest pewter platters and also a china bason ; also a 
cow to be delivered to her within a year after my decease. 

19. Item: I give unto my son Samuel Bradford all my 
Latin books to encourage him in bringing up one of his sons 
to learning which said books it is my will that they shall by 
him be given to his said son whom he shall so bring up. 

20. Item: I give to every one of my daughters a good 
book which they may choose out of my library. 



major Bradford's homestead. 87 



21. Item: I give to Hannah the wife of my son Samuel 
Bradford Mr. Borroughs on the nth of Matthew. 

22. Item: It is my will that the rest of my books be 
safely kept by my executors and in case my son Samuel shall 
bring up one of his sons to learning to be by said executors 
delivered to him when he comes of age. 

I do constitute and appoint my loving sons John Brad- 
ford, Samuel Bradford and Israel Bradford as executors of 
this my last will and testament to pay such debts as I owe, 
to receive my dues and to see my body decently buried, to 
defray the charge thereof and to see my will (as near as they 
can) in all the particulars of it performed, thus hoping they will 
faithfully perform such a trust committed unto them. I do 
revoke and make void any former will by me at any time 
heretofore made. 

I, the said William Bradford have hereunto set my hand 
and seal this twenty-ninth day of June, 1703. 

Signed sealed and declared to be his last will and testa- 
ment. 



J k>iM+^Ar<@j£ i 



w 

- 



In presence of us 

JOHN ROGERS, 
THOMAS LORING, 
EPHRAIM LITTLE, JR." 

MAJOR BRADFORD'S HOMESTEAD. 

Jones' River where Bradford died takes its name from Capt. 
Jones of the Mayflower who was one of the exploring party that went 
three English miles up said river on December 29, 1620. About 
1855 Francis Drew made excavations in the old cellar of the Brad- 
ford house and found numerous bricks and a few household 
articles. One of the said bricks is now in Pilgrim Hall, Plymouth. 

People of middle age well remember several apple trees of the 



88 



BRADFORD. 



a 

Q 



old orchard which stood in a decaying condition after 1840 and 
one was left standing and bearing fruit until about 1877. It was 
a high-top sweeting, set out, it is believed in 1669 and which in 
this year of grace, 1876, bears a small quantity of fair fruit. 
Notwithstanding the great age of this apple tree it came to an 
untimely end, for a boy on a Fourth of July made a bonfire in its 
old hollow trunk, and every vestige of life in the historic tree 
went up in smoke on that Independence Day and the fragments 
were carried off by relic hunters. 

There is now deposited in Pilgrim Hall a pewter tankard 
and plate which has come down from the days of Major 
William through Nathan, the youngest son of David. They 
bear the crown mark of William III., of England and the 
Major was living through the whole reign of that sovereign. 
Mary, the widow of Major William Bradford died in 17 15. 

CHILDREN. 

BY HIS FIRST WIFE. 

i. John, born Feb. 20, 
165 1-2, married Mercy, daugh- 
ter of Joseph Warren of Plym- 
outh, Feb. 5, 1674, with whom 
he lived sixty-two years. He 
was known as Major John 
Bradford and lived a few rods 
from Jones' River south of 
Stony Brook. His house is 
still standing very near the 
railroad, so that any one riding 
in the cars between Plymouth 
and Boston can have a good 
view of it while passing over the 
river. It was built about 1674, 




Pe¥/tei Tamkard. 



and according to tradition an attempt was made to burn it by the 



major William's children. 



89 



Indians during Philip's War. This is the same house to which 
reference is made by Rev. Thomas Prince, the chronologist, in the 
note written by him on the fly-leaf of Gov. Bradford's manuscript 
history, where he describes his call on Major John Bradford in 
1728. Major Bradford was a deputy to the general court from 
1689 to 1 69 1 and he was one of the representatives from Plymouth 
to the first general court held at Boston after the union with Mass- 
achusetts. He died Dec. 8, 1736, aged nearly 84. His widow 
died at the old historic house herein before noted as now standing. 



*'§ : T- 





MAJOR JOHN BRADFORD'S HOUSE. 

2. William, born March n, 1655, married in 1679 Rebecca, 
daughter of Josept Bartlett of Duxbury. He resided at Kingston 
and died in 1687. 

3. Thomas, born 1657, who by his father's will received 
lands in Norwich, Conn., removed to that state and it is said 
married Anna Smith, daughter of Nehemiah and Anna (Bourn) 
Smith. Fessenden was in error in saying that he married Anna 



90 BRADFORD. 

Fitch. He married 2nd. Priscilla, daughter of Major John Mason, 
the hero of the Pequot War, and died in 1708. 

4. Mercy, bapt. at Boston, Sept. 2, 1660 married Samuel 
Steele of Hartford, Conn., Sept. 16, 1680. He was a descendant 
of John Steele one of the first settlers of Hartford. 

5. Alice, born 1661, (?) married, 1st, Rev. William Adams of 
Dedham, March 27, 1680. She married 2nd. Major James Fitch. 

6. Hannah, born 1663, married Nov. 28, 1682, Joshua 
Ripley of Hingham, Mass. Joshua and Hannah Ripley were 
among the pioneer settlers of Windham, Conn. He was their first 
town clerk and treasurer and also the first representative from 
Windham to the General Assembly. She was a noble and useful 
woman, remarkable not only for intelligence and accomplishments 
but for her skill in the art of healing, being the first and for a long 
time the only physician in the settlement. They had twelve 
children. According to their tombstones he died May 18, 1739, 
age 80. She died May 27, 1738, age 75. 

7. Meletiah, born 1667, married John Steele of Norwich, 
son of James and Bethia (Bishop) Steele of Hartford, Conn., and 
grandson of George Steele, brother of the first John. He died 
March 6, 1697-8, and she married Ensign Samuel Stevens of 
Killingworth, Conn., who died in 17 12. 

8. Mary, born 1668, married William Hunt, and died Oct. 
10, 1720, aged 52. 

9. Samuel, born 1668, (?) married July 1689, Hannah, 
daughter of John and Elizabeth Rogers of Duxbury, Mass., where 
Samuel Bradford was living as early as 1700, when he was chosen 
juryman. He was called Lieutenant, held several public offices 
and died April n, 17 14. 

10. Sarah, born 1671, married Kenelm Baker of Marsfield. 

By second wife. 

11. Joseph, born 1674, married 1st. Anna, daughter of Rev. 
James and Priscilla (Mason) Fitch of Norwich. He married 2nd. 









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major William's children. 93 

Mrs. Mary (Sherwood), Fitch, daughter of Capt. Matthew and 
Mary (Fitch), Sherwood of Stratford, Conn., and widow of Capt. 
Daniel Fitch, who was brother to his first wife Anna. Capt. 
Matthew Sherwood's wife Mary was a daughter of Thomas Fitch 
of Norwalk, and if Joseph Bradford's mother was also a daughter 
of the said Thomas Fitch as has been stated, then his second wife 
Mary Sherwood was his own cousin. 

By third wife. 

12. Israel, married Sarah, daughter of Benjamin Bartlett of 
Duxbury, Mass., and resided in Kingston. 

13. Ephraim, married Feb. 13, 17 10, to Elizabeth Brewster, 
the daughter of Wrestling Brewster, the son of Love, who was the 
son of Elder William Brewster. The records of Plymouth give 
her name as Bartlett, but she could not have been the daughter of 
Benjamin Bartlett as stated by Davis. 

14. David, married Elizabeth, daughter of John Finney, 
1 7 14. He lived at Kingston and died March 16, 1730. His 
widow married a Mr. Ludden of Boston. 

15. Hezekiah, married Mary Chandler of Duxbury, Mass., 
and resided in Kingston. 

CONCLUSION. 

On the preceding page we give a./ac simile of the last page of 
Bradford's manuscript history of Plymouth, as one of the con- 
cluding pages of our life of Bradford, 



94 



ARRANGEMENT OF SUBJECTS. 





PAGE. 


Authorities, ..... 


1 1 


The Name [Bradford], .... 


13 


Ancestry, ...... 


14 


In Austerfield, ..... 


i5 


Associates with Brewster, . 


2 1 


Sufferings at Scrooby, .... 


2 3 


In Holland, ..... 


24 


In America, ..... 


26 


Chosen Governor, ..... 


29 


The Governor's Duties, .... 


3 1 


Bradford's Character, .... 


32 


Bradford, as Governor, .... 


35 


Colony Affairs, ..... 


37 


Liberal Character, ..... 


39 


Poetry, ...... 


4i 


Bradford's "History of Plimouth Plantation," 


42 


Description of Lyford, .... 


49 


Bradford's Property, .... 


5° 


The Farm at Kingston, .... 


5i 


Bradford's Family, ..... 


5 2 


Alice (Carpenter), Bradford, 


55 


The Southworth Boys, .... 


57 


His Inventory, ..... 


59 


Bradford Relics, ..... 


60 


Bradford's Death and Burial, 


61 


Mrs. Alice Bradford, .... 


65 


Bradford's Will, ..... 


66 


Inventory, ...... 


68 



ARRANGEMENT OF SUBJECTS. 



95 





PAGE. 


Heraldry, ..... 


75 


Seal and Arms, . . . " 


75 


His Children, .... 


77 


Major William Bradford, 


78 


Major Bradford's Will, 


83 


Major Bradford's Homestead, 


87 


Major Bradford's Children, 


88 


Conclusion, .... 


93 



9 6 



ARRANGEMENT OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



The departure of the Pilgrims (Frontispiece), 

The Shepard-Bradford line, 

Ancient Chapel, Austerfield, Eng. , 

Bradford House, Austerfield, Eng., 

Plymouth Rock, 

Bradford lot, Kingston, Mass., 

Bradford monument, 

Gov. Bradford's autograph and seal, 

Bradford arms, 

Major William's tomb-stone, 

Major William's autograph, 

Major William's tankard, 

Major John Bradford's house, , 

Page of Bradford's manuscript, 



PAGE. 
2 

7 
16 

18 

27 

53 
64 

75 
76 

82 

87 
88 
89 
92 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



INDEX OF PERSONS.* 



Adams, William, 90 

Ainsworth, , 73 

Alcott, Statira, 7 

Alden, 1 ». 26 

Alden, Charles L. (Mrs.), « 

John, 50 

Alexander, , So 

Allerton, , 33 

Isaac, 29 
Andros, , 79 

Arber, . ». *8, 3 1 . 36 

Atwood, , 79 

John, 77, 79 
Mary, 77, 79 

Bablington, B., 72 
Baker, Kenelm, 90 

Sarah, 86 

Barriff, ,84 

Bartlett, Benjamin, 93 

Elizabeth, 93 

Joseph, 89 

Rebecca, 89 

Sarah, 93 

Baylies, , ", J 7> 2 o, 26, 29, 

3 I 1 3 2 '34 1 35i36,37 1 4 I .43 

Belknap, 1 "1 33i 34 

Belknap, Jeremy, n 
Bishop, Bethia, 90 

Bodin, , 72 

Bourn, Anna, 89 

Martha, 77 

Thomas, 77 



*Names of authors that appear in the 
faced type. 



Bowes, Cornelia, 26 

Bradford, Alice, 14, 19, 56, 58, 65, 

66, 67, 68, 78, 79, 90 
Araory H., 12, 33 
Carpenter, 78 
David, 84, 85, 86, SS, 93 
Dorothy, 26, 62 
Elizabeth, 14 
Ephraim, 84, 85, 86, 93 
Hannah, 87, 90 
Hezekiah, 84, 85, S6, 93 
Israel, 85, 86, 87, 93 
John, 26, 57, 59, 67, 77, 84, 

85, 86, 87, 88, 89 
Joseph, 57,59i77i79> 8 5i9°>93 
Lydia, 76 
Margaret, 14 
Mary, 84, SS, 90 
Meletiah, 7, 90 
Mercy, 56, 77, 90 
Nathan, 88 
Robert, 14, 19 
Samuel, 40, 83, 85, 86, 87, 90 
Sarah, 90 

Thomas, 14, 19, 84, 85, 89 
William, (Gov.), 2 to 77 
William, (Maj.), 3, 7, 13, 

40, 52, 56, 59, 62, 65, 67, 

77, 78 to 93 
William, 7, 14, 15, 19, 79, 
84, 86, 89 
Brewster, , 21, 22, 32, ^, 39, 

40, 57 
margin through the book are indexed in bold 



IOO 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



Brewster, Elizabeth, 93 
Love, 93 
William, 21, 93 
Wrestling, 93 
Briggs, Robert, 14, 19 
Bronson, Hannah, 7 

Brown, . I2 > 43. 44 

Brown, John, 12 

Burke, , 76 

Bunyan, — — , 47 



Burroughs, 



Cahin, - 
Calvin, 



-,87 

7 2 . 73 

1 73 
-, 12, 50 



Capen. - 

Capen, Nahum, 12 

Carver, , 29, 33, 37, 38, 39, 57 

John, 26 
Carpenter, , 20, 55 

Alexander, 52, 55 

Alice, 7, 52, 55 

Mary, 5 8 

Cartwright, , 72 

Chandler, Mary, 93 

Clarke, , 74 

Clifton, , 20, 21, 22 

Cobb, Ebenezer, 62 
Collier, , 61 

Elizabeth, 78 

William, 78 
Cooke, Rollin H., 10 

Cotten. , 72, 73 

Cud worth, , 80 

Curtis, Celia Adelaide, 7 
Cushman, Thomas, 56, 57, 59, 67, 74 

Robert, 57 

Davis, .12,23, 33,39-4°' 50, 51, 

79, 80 

Davis, , 74, 93 

William T., 12 



Deane, . ". J 9, 22 , 4 2 , 43. 44 

Deane, , 46 

Charles, 11 

Dexter, - -. I2 . l S, l6 . 3 6 . 37- 

40, 41 

Dexter. Morton, 12 

De Rasiers, , 51 

Dike, , 73 

Doe, , 73 

Doyle, 1 ". 35, 36, 44. 47 

Doyle, John A., 11 

Drake, > "> 3 2 

Drake, , Samuel G , 11 

Drew, 1 "1 5 1 , 5 2 . 8 3' 8 4' 8 5. 

86, 87, 88 
Drew, Francis, 51,87 

Thomas Bradford, n, 52 

Driulette, , 31 

Dunham, , 72 

John, 74 



Elliott, 



11,21,25,33,34,35, 



3 6 . 4° 
Elliott, Charles W., 11 

Faii-bairn, , 76 

Faunce, John, 58 

Thomas, 58, 59 

Fessenden, ,11,13,38,75,80 

Fessenden, , 75, 89 

G. M.. 11 
Finney, Elizabeth, 93 

John, 93 
Fitch, Alice, 86 

Anna, 90, 93 

Daniel, 93 

James, 90 

Mary, 93 

Priscilla, 90 

Thomas, 79, 93 
Fletcher, Henry (Rev.), 15 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



IOI 



Fuller, , 32, 39, 56 

Gifford, , 73 

Goodwin, 12 > r 5, 2 °, 22 , 2( >, 

3°- 3 1 - 3 2 , 33, 34, 37, 3 s , 

39- 49, 5°, 5 2 , 5.S, 5 6 , 57, 
58,61,62,65,66,79 80,83 

Goodwin, , 79 

John A , 12 

William Bradford, 12 
Gresham, , 15 

Margaret, 14, 15 
Gouge, , 73 

Hanson, , 15 

Alice, 7, 14, 15 

John, 14, 15 

Margaret, 14 
Hatherly, , So 

Haxtun, - - * 2 , 21, 33, 3S, 39 

Haxtun, A. A. (Mrs.), i 2 
Heep, Uriah, 49 
Hill, James, 14 
Hoar, Senator, 46 
Hobart, Jael, 77 

Peter, (Rev.), 77 
Holmes, John, 77, 79 

Mary, 77 
Hopkins. , 33 

Hubbard, , ", 2 9, 30 

Hubbard, , 34, 45 

Humphrey, James, (Mrs.), 76 
Hunt, Mary, S5 

William, 90 

Hunter, , *', *5i x 7, 19* 2 °, 

21, 2:, 23, 24 

Hunter, , 76 

Joseph, 11, 17 
Hutchinson, Thomas, 45 

Jones, Capt., 87 
Jourdaine, John, 74 



Kempton, , 57 

Juliana, 56 
Mannassah, 56, 74 

Latham, , 57 

William, 56, 57 
Lee Baron, Dr. L., 61 
Leete, W. W. (Rev.), 9 
Lewis, J. W. & Co., 12 
Little, Ephraim, Jr., 87 

Lord, - — , ", 44 

Lord, Arthur, 11 
Loring, Thomas, 87 
Lucy, Charles, 2 

Ludden, , 93 

Luther, , 72 

Lyford, , 35, 49 

John, 49 
Lysle, William, 25 

Mallory, Thankful, 7 
Martine, Peter, 72 
Mason, John, 90 

Priscilla, 90 
Massasoit, , 80 

Mather, , "1 2I , 2 3> 2 4, 2 5, 

26, 30, 34, 61 

Mather, , 17, 18, 19,45 

Cotton, 11, 17 
May, Cornelia, 26 

Dorothy, 26, 55 

John, 26, 55, 77 
Mayor, , 72 

Meade, » "> 43 

Meade, Editor, 11 

Moore, , lI « 2 °, 6 °, 6l 

Moore, Jacob Baily, 11 

Morse, , ",61 

Morse, Abner, 11, 12 

Morton, , ", 4 1 - 4 2 ,44,6i, 62 

Morton, , 41, 56, 57 



102 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



Morton, Ephraim, 56, 59 
George, 57 
John, 56 
Nathaniel, 11, 45, 56, 57, 

59i 67 
Patience, 56, 58 

Neal, , "1 30, 3 8 

Neal, Daniel, 11 

Nelson, , 74 

Oldham, , 35 

Palmer, William, 74 

Pareus, , 84 

Perkins, , 72, 84 

Philip, , 78, 80, 89 

Pierce, . 32 

Prince, , 30, 31, 41, 45 

Thomas, 45, 67, 89 

Raynor, Elizabeth, 78 
Revel, Fleming H. Co., 12 
Richards, Alice, 7, 77, 78, 79 

Thomas, 77, 78 

Welthean, 77, 78 
Ripley, Hannah, 86, 90 

Joshua, 90 
Robinson, , 26, 33, 36, 80 

John (Rev.), 60 
Rogers. Elizabeth, 90 

Hannah, 90 

John, 87, 90 

Joseph, 56 

Thomas, 56 
Russell, N., 61 



Shakespeare, , 44 

Sheffe, , 74 

Shepard, Amos, 7 

Celia Antoinette, 5, 7 
James, 3, 7, 10 
Samuel, 7 

Sherwood, Mary, 93 



Sherwood, Matthew, 93 

Skiff, , 80 

Smith, , 32 

Anna, 89 

Mary. 66 

Nehemiah, 89 
Southworth, , 57, 58, 66, 67 

Alice, 52 

Constant, 58, 78 

Edward, 55, 78 

Elizabeth, 7S 

Thomas, 57, 59, 67, 78 
Speed, , 72 

Standish, 130,32,33-37.39.59. 

62, 80 

Myles, 50, 52 
Steele, Bethia, 7, 90 

George, 90 

James, 90 

John, 7, 90 

Meletiah, 86 

Mercy, 86 

Samuel, 90 
Stevens, Samuel, 74 
Stipek, A. W., 9 
Stirtivant, Samuel, 74 

Taylor, , 73 

Tracy, Thomas, 77 

Tyler, . I2 > 2 3. 2 4. 45. 4 6 . 47, 

4§. 49. 5° 
Tyler, Moses Coit, 12 

Vermayes, Benjamin, 77 
Vermont, , 76 

Waigestafe, Alice, 14 

Wamsutta, , 52, 80 

Warren, Joseph, 88 

Mercy, 88 
Waters, , 61 

Joseph Belcher, 61 



INDEX OF PERSONS. 



103 



Weames, , 72 

Weston, , 36, 37 

Willett, - — , 72 

Thomas, 67 
William, III., SS 
Williams, , 73 

Roger, 32 
Wilson, , 32 

Roger, 25 



Winsor, - 
Winsiow, 



-, 12 



3°. 3 2 . 33' 37> 39, 



51, So 
Edward. 29 

Winthrop, , 32, 39, 75 

Wiswall, Pastor, 77, 79 
Wood, John, 79 



Young, 



", 5 2 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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